planet.freedesktop.org
 May 20, 2020

Meanwhile, in GSoC:

I took the second week of Community Bonding to make some improvements in my development environment. As I have reported before, I use a QEMU VM to develop kernel contributions. I was initially using an Arch VM for development; however, at the beginning of the year, I reconfigured it to use a Debian VM, since my host is a Debian installation - fewer context changes. In this movement, some ends were loose, and I did some workarounds, well… better round it off.

I also use kworkflow (KW) to ease most of the no-coding tasks included in the day-to-day coding for Linux kernel. The KW automates repetitive steps of a developer’s life, such as compiling and installing my kernel modifications; finding information to format and send patches correctly; mounting or remotely accessing a VM, etc. During the time that preceded the GSoC project submission, I noticed that the feature of installing a kernel inside the VM was incompleted. At that time, I started to use the “remote” option as palliative. Therefore, I spent the last days learning more features and how to hack the kworkflow to improve my development environment (and send it back to the kw project).

I have started by sending a minor fix on alert message:

kw: small issue on u/mount alert message

Then I expanded the feature “explore” - looking for a string in directory contents - by adding GNU grep utility in addition to the already used git grep. I gathered many helpful suggestions for this patch, and I applied them together with the reviews received in a new version:

src: add grep utility to explore feature

Finally, after many hours of searching, reading and learning a little about guestfish, grub, initramfs-tools and bash, I could create the first proposal of code changes that enable kw to automate the build and install of a kernel in VM:

add support for deployment in a debian-VM

The main barrier to this feature was figuring out how to update the grub on the VM without running the update-grub command via ssh access. First, I thought about adding a custom file with a new entry to boot. Thinking and researching a little more, I realized that guestfish could solve the problem and, following this logic, I found a blog post describing how to run “update-grub” with guestfish. From that, I made some adaptations that created the solution.

However, in addition to updating grub, the feature still lacks some steps to install the kernel on the VM properly. I checked the missing code by visiting an old FLUSP tutorial that describes the step-by-step of compiling and install the Linux Kernel inside a VM. I also used the implementation of the “remote” mode of the “kw deploy” to wrap up.

Now I use kw to automatically compile and install a custom kernel on my development VM. So, time to sing: “Ooh, that’s why I’m easy; I’m easy as Sunday morning!”

This morning I saw two things that were Microsoft and Linux graphics related.

https://devblogs.microsoft.com/commandline/the-windows-subsystem-for-linux-build-2020-summary/

a) DirectX on Linux for compute workloads
b) Linux GUI apps on Windows

At first I thought these were related, but it appears at least presently these are quite orthogonal projects.

The DX on Linux is a WSL2 only thing. Microsoft are not any way bringing DX12 to Linux outside of the Windows environment. They are also in no way open sourcing any of the DX12 driver code. They are recompiling the DX12 userspace drivers (from GPU vendors) into Linux shared libraries, and running them on a kernel driver shim that transfers the kernel interface up to the closed source Windows kernel driver. This is in no way useful for having DX12 on Linux baremetal or anywhere other than in a WSL2 environment. It is not useful for Linux gaming.

Microsoft have submitted to the upstream kernel the shim driver to support this. This driver exposes their D3DKMT kernel interface from Windows over virtual channels into a Linux driver that provides an ioctl interface. The kernel drivers are still all running on the Windows side.

Now I read the Linux GUI apps bit and assumed that these things were the same, well it turns out the DX12 stuff doesn't address presentation at all. It's currently only for compute/ML workloads using CUDA/DirectML. There isn't a way to put the results of DX12 rendering from the Linux guest applications onto the screen at all. The other project is a wayland/RDP integration server, that connects Linux apps via wayland to RDP client on Windows display, integrating that with DX12 will be a tricky project, and then integrating that upstream with the Linux stack another step completely.

Now I'm sure this will be resolved, but it has certain implications on how the driver architecture works and how much of the rest of the Linux graphics ecosystem you have to interact with, and that means that the current driver might not be a great fit in the long run and upstreaming it prematurely might be a bad idea.

From my point of view the kernel shim driver doesn't really bring anything to Linux, it's just a tunnel for some binary data between a host windows kernel binary and a guest linux userspace binary. It doesn't enhance the Linux graphics ecosystem in any useful direction, and as such I'm questioning why we'd want this upstream at all.

 May 19, 2020

One of the more common issues we encounter debugging things is that users don't always know whether they're running on a Wayland or X11 session. Which I guess is a good advertisement for how far some of the compositors have come. The question "are you running on Xorg or Wayland" thus comes up a lot and suggestions previously included things like "run xeyes", "grep xinput list", "check xrandr" and so on and so forth. None of those are particularly scriptable, so there's a new tool around now: xisxwayland.

Run without arguments it simply exits with exit code 0 if the X server is Xwayland, or 1 otherwise. Which means use can use it like this:

$cat my-xorg-only-script.sh#!/bin/bashif xisxwayland; then echo "This is an Xwayland server!"; exit 1fi... Or, in the case where you have a human user (gasp!), you can ask them to run: $ xisxwayland --verboseXwayland: YES
And even non-technical users should be able to interpret that.

Note that the script checks for Xwayland (hence the name) via the $DISPLAY environment variable, just like any X application. It does not check whether there's a Wayland compositor running but for most use-cases this doesn't matter anyway. For those where it matters you get to write your own script. Congratulations, I guess.  May 13, 2020 I submitted a project proposal to participate in this year’s Google Summer of Code (GSoC). As I am curious about the DRM subsystem and have already started to work in contributing to it, I was looking for an organization that supports this subsystem. So, I applied to the X.Org foundation and proposed a project to Improve VKMS using IGT GPU Tools. Luckily, in May 4th, I received a e-mail from GSoC announcing that I was accepted! Happy happy happy! Observing a conversation in #dri-devel channel, I realized that my project was the only one accepted on X.Org. WoW! I have no idea why the organization has only one intern this year, and even more, that this is me! Imediately after I received the result, Trevor Woerner congratulated me and kindly announced my project on his Twitter profile! It was fun to know that he enjoyed the things that I randomly posted in my blog, and was so nice to see that he read what I wrote! ### Advices, not sure, but I can report the submission experience From time to time, someone appears on communication channels of FLUSP (FLOSS@USP) asking how to participate in GSoC or Outreachy. They are usually trying to answer questions about the rules of participation and/or obtain reports from former participants. In my opinion, we have in Brazil many high-qualified IT people who, for some reason, do not feel safe to invest in a career abroad. They are very demanding with themselves. And I believe that groups like FLUSP can be a means of launching good developers internationally. By viewing this contribution window, I consider it worthwhile to report some actions that I took in my application process. First, take seriously, and do it as soon as possible. About a year ago, I took my first efforts to understand the project and the Linux community. But that doesn’t mean you need a year in advance for that. What I mean is that, for a project like Linux, I had to dedicate enough hours studying, understanding, and trying to develop my first contributions. And I, in particular, did not feel skilled enough to propose anything for the community. Participating in GSoC was not my initial plan. What I wanted (and still want) is to become a high-skilled developer of the Linux kernel project. Second, take your first contribution steps. Many times I prepared the environment, started to work on some things, and then ended up blocked by all the doubts that arose when I dived into all these lines of code. Breathe… Better start with the basics. If you have someone who can mentor you, one way is to work “with her/him.” Find issues or code that s/he participates so you can start a conversation and some guidance. I prefer a “peer-to-peer” introduction than a “broadcast” message for the community. And then, things fly. When the organizations are announced… Ask the community (or the developers you have already developed a connexion) if any of the organizations would contemplate the system you are interested in proposing a project. You can propose something that you think relevant, you can look for project suggestions within organizations, or you can (always) ask. Honestly, I’m not very good at asking. In the case of X.Org Foundation, you can find tips here, and suggestions and potential mentors here and here. Write your proposal and share! As soon as you can. In your proposal, you should introduce yourself and show what you already know so far, that is, make your portfolio. Also, try to be as transparent as possible about tasks, describe everything you already know about the issues, estimate time, and make a schedule. Finally, propose productions in addition to code (documentation, tutorial, blog posts). I think this content production will help your work and also the well-monitoring of your activities. Moreover, it is a way to spread the word and track development issues. I wasn’t fast enough to share my project, but I saw how my proposal evolved after I received the community feedback. The feature of “create and share” is available in the GSoC application platform using Google Docs. I think my internship work plan became more potent due to share my document and apply all suggestions. Approved and now? I am the newer X.Org developer After the welcome, Siqueira and Trevor also gave me some guidance, reading, and initial activities. To better understand the X.Org organization and the system I will be working on in the coming months, I have read the following links (still in progress): ### Hands on, it has already started! Well, time to revisit the proposal, organize daily activities, and check the development environment. Before the GSoC results, I was working on some kworkflow issues and so, that’s what I’ve been working on at the moment. I like to study “problem-oriented”, so to dissect the kw, I took some issues to try to solve. I believe I can report my progress in an upcoming post. To the next!  May 08, 2020 Gather round children, it's analogy time! First, some definitions: • Wayland is a protocol to define the communication between a display server (the "compositor") and a client, i.e. an application though the actual communication is usually done by a toolkit like GTK or Qt. • A Wayland Compositor is an implementation of a display server that (usually but not necessary) handles things like displaying stuff on screen and handling your input devices, among many other things. Common examples for Wayland Compositors are GNOME's mutter, KDE's KWin, weston, sway, etc.[1] And now for the definitions we need for our analogy: • HTTP is a protocol to define the communication between a web server and a client (usually called the "browser") • A Web Browser is an implementation that (sometimes but not usually) handles things like displaying web sites correctly, among many other things. Common examples for Web Browsers are Firefox, Chrome, Edge, Safari, etc. [2] And now for the analogy: The following complaints are technically correct but otherwise rather pointless to make: • HTTP doesn't support CSS • HTTP doesn't support adblocking • HTTP doesn't render this or that website correctly And much in the same style, the following complaints are technically correct but otherwise rather pointless to make: • Wayland doesn't support keyboard shortcuts • Wayland doesn't support screen sharing • Wayland doesn't render this or that application correctly In most cases you may encounter (online or on your setup), saying "Wayland doesn't support$BLAH" is like saying "HTTP doesn't support $BLAH". The problem isn't in with Wayland itself, it's a missing piece or bug in the compositor you're using. Likewise, saying "I don't like Wayland" is like saying "I don't like HTTP".The vast majority of users will have negative feelings towards the browser, not the transport protocol. [1] Because they're implementations of a display server they can speak multiple protocols and some compositors can also be X11 window managers, much in the same way as you can switch between English and your native language(s).[2] Because they're implementations of a web browser they can speak multiple protocols and some browsers can also be FTP file managers, much in the same way as... you get the point  May 07, 2020 We recently had a Fedora AMA where one of the questions asked is why GNOME is the default desktop for Fedora Workstation. In the AMA we answered why GNOME had been chosen for Fedora Workstation, but we didn’t challenge the underlying assumption built into the way the question was asked, and the answer to that assumption is that it isn’t the default. What I mean with this is that Fedora Workstation isn’t a box of parts, where you have default options that can be replaced, its a carefully procured and assembled operating system aimed at developers, sysadmins and makers in general. If you replace one or more parts of it, then it stops being Fedora Workstation and starts being ‘build your own operating system OS’. There is nothing wrong with wanting to or finding it interesting to build your own operating systems, I think a lot of us initially got into Linux due to enjoying doing that. And the Fedora project provides a lot of great infrastructure for people who want to themselves or through teaming up with others build their own operating systems, which is why Fedora has so many spins and variants available. The Fedora Workstation project is something we made using those tools and it has been tested and developed as an integrated whole, not as a collection of interchangeable components. The Fedora Workstation project might of course over time replace certain parts with other parts over time, like how we are migrating from X.org to Wayland. But at some point we are going to drop standalone X.org support and only support X applications through XWayland. But that is not the same as if each of our users individually did the same. And while it might be technically possible for a skilled users to still get things moved back onto X for some time after we make the formal deprecation, the fact is that you would no longer be using ‘Fedora Workstation’. You be using a homebrew OS that contains parts taken from Fedora Workstation. So why am I making this distinction? To be crystal clear, it is not to hate on you for wanting to assemble your own OS, in fact we love having anyone with that passion as part of the Fedora community. I would of course love for you to share our vision and join the Fedora Workstation effort, but the same is true for all the other spins and variant communities we have within the Fedora community too. No the reason is that we have a very specific goal of creating a stable and well working experience for our users with Fedora Workstation and one of the ways we achieve this is by having a tightly integrated operating system that we test and develop as a whole. Because that is the operating system we as the Fedora Workstation project want to make. We believe that doing anything else creates an impossible QA matrix, because if you tell people that ‘hey, any part of this OS is replaceable and should still work’ you have essentially created a testing matrix for yourself of infinite size. And while as software engineers I am sure many of us find experiments like ‘wonder if I can get Fedora Workstation running on a BSD kernel’ or ‘I wonder if I can make it work if I replace glibc with Bionic‘ fun and interesting, I am equally sure we all also realize what once we do that we are in self support territory and that Fedora Workstation or any other OS you use as your starting point can’t not be blamed if your system stops working very well. And replacing such a core thing as the desktop is no different to those other examples. Having been in the game of trying to provide a high quality desktop experience both commercially in the form of RHEL Workstation and through our community efforts around Fedora Workstation I have seen and experienced first hand the problems that the mindset of interchangeable desktop creates. For instance before we switched to the Fedora Workstation branding and it was all just ‘Fedora’ I experienced reviewers complaining about missing features, features had actually spent serious effort implementing, because the reviewer decided to review a different spin of Fedora than the GNOME one. Other cases I remember are of customers trying to fix a problem by switching desktops, only to discover that while the initial issue they wanted fix got resolved by the switch they now got a new batch of issues that was equally problematic for them. And we where left trying to figure out if we should try to fix the original problem, the new ones or maybe the problems reported by users of a third desktop option. We also have had cases of users who just like the reviewer mentioned earlier, assumed something was broken or missing because they where using a different desktop than the one where the feature was added. And at the same time trying to add every feature everywhere would dilute our limited development resources so much that it made us move slow and not have the resources to focus on getting ready for major changes in the hardware landscape for instance. So for RHEL we now only offer GNOME as the desktop and the same is true in Fedora Workstation, and that is not because we don’t understand that people enjoy experimenting with other desktops, but because it allows us to work with our customers and users and hardware partners on fixing the issues they have with our operating system, because it is a clearly defined entity, and adding the features they need going forward and properly support the hardware they are using, as opposed to spreading ourselves to thin that we just run around putting on band-aids for the problems reported. And in the longer run I actually believe this approach benefits those of you who want to build your own OS to, or use an OS built by another team around a different set of technologies, because while the improvements might come in a bit later for you, the work we now have the ability to undertake due to having a clear focus, like our work on adding HiDPI support, getting Wayland ready for desktop use or enabling Thunderbolt support in Linux, makes it a lot easier for these other projects to eventually add support for these things too. Update: Adam Jacksons oft quoted response to the old ‘linux is about choice meme’ is also a required reading for anyone wanting a high quality operating system  May 04, 2020 *reality TV show deep voice guy* In 2016, we added a way to launch apps on the discrete GPU. *swoosh effects* In 2019, we added a way for that to work with the NVidia drivers. *explosions* In 2020, we're adding a way for applications to launch automatically on the discrete GPU. *fast cuts of loads of applications being launched and quiet* Introducing the (badly-named-but-if-you-can-come-up-with-a-better-name-youre-ready-for-computers) “PrefersNonDefaultGPU” desktop entry key. From the specifications website: If true, the application prefers to be run on a more powerful discrete GPU if available, which we describe as “a GPU other than the default one” in this spec to avoid the need to define what a discrete GPU is and in which cases it might be considered more powerful than the default GPU. This key is only a hint and support might not be present depending on the implementation. And support for that key is coming to GNOME Shell soon. TL;DR Add “PrefersNonDefaultGPU=true” to your application's .desktop file if it can benefit from being run on a more powerful GPU. We've also added a switcherooctl command to recent versions of switcheroo-control so you can launch your apps on the right GPU from your scripts and tweaks.  April 28, 2020 As Fedora Workstation 32 was released today I ended up looking back at our efforts to drain the swamp over the last 6 years. In April of 2014 I wrote a blog post outlining our vision for the Fedora Workstation effort and what we wanted to achieve with it. I hadn’t looked at that blog post in years, but it was interesting going back to it and realize that while some of the details have changed it is still the vision we are pursuing today; to keep draining the swamp and make Fedora Workstation a top notch operating system for developers and makers in general. Which I guess is one of the hallmarks of a decent vision, that it allows for the details to change without invalidating it. One of my pet peeves at the time with Linux as a desktop operating system was that so many of the so called efforts to make linux user friendly was essentially duck taping over the problems, creating fragile solutions that often made it harder for us to really move forward. In the yers since we addressed a lot of major swamp issues with our efforts around HiDPI & Bolt (getting ahead of hardware enablement for new monitors and Thunderbolt devices respectively), Flatpaks, GNOME Software and AppStream (making applications discoverable, deployable and maintainable), Wayland (making your desktop secure and future proof), LVFS and firmware handling (making them easily available for Linux users), Finger print reader standard (ensuring your hardware is fully supported) and coming up with ways to improve the lives of developers with improvements to the terminal or Fedora Toolbox, our developer pet container tool. Working on these and other issues we early realized that a model where hardware gets enabled in a reactive manner, in response to new laptops being sold, was never going to yield a good result for our users. As long as we followed that model people where bound to always hit issues with laptops as they came out and then have to deal with those issues for the first 6-12 Months of its life. This is why I am so excited about our new partnership with Lenovo that we pre-announced on Friday as it is both the culmination of our efforts over the last 6 years, but also the starting point of a new era in terms of how we work with hardware makers. So instead of us spending a ton of time trying to reverse engineers basic drivers we can now rely on our hardware partner and their component vendors providing that and we can instead focus on what I call high level hardware enablement. Meaning that as we see new features coming into laptops and computers we can try to improve the infrastructure in the operating system to be able to take full advantage of said hardware, and we can do so in collaboration with the hardware makers knowing that once we provide the infrastructure they will ensure to provide drivers and similar fitting into that infrastructure. Our work on fingerprint readers and thunderbolt support for instance has been two great early examples of that. Anyway, you are probably interested to know some of the new things coming in Fedora Workstaton 32, so here are some of my personal highlights: ### New lock screen This is more a cosmetic change, but one that every user will see upon logging into their Fedora system after a new install or upgrade. The new design features a faded version of your desktop background image and it should also feel more smooth as the password dialog now appears on the lock screen page as opposed to before where it sort of replaced it. The dialog now also tries to more discreetly than before inform you if your trying to type in the password while the lock screen is on. A big thanks to Allan Day and the GNOME design team for their work here trying to polish this part of the user interface. ### GNOME extension app GNOME Shell extensions are little tweaks and additional features for the desktop that our user have gotten accustomed to and enjoy greatly. Extensions are also the technology that powers the GNOME Classic session that provides those of our users who want it with a more traditional desktop experience. GNOME Shell extensions have gradually evolved in how we work with them since their inception as something you install through your web browser to now being handled through GNOME Software. With Fedora Workstation 32 we are making the new GNOME Shell extensions management app available as the next step in the evolution of GNOME Shell extensions, making it simple to turn any given extension on of our or quickly see which extensions you have installed. GNOME Extensions handling app ### Fedora Toolbox Fedora Toolbox is our helper for making working with containers for development and testing as easy it possibly can be. Debarshi Ray and Ondřej Míchal have been hard at work porting the Fedora Toolbox to Go from shell for this release. For those wondering why we choose Go as the language; there was basically two reasons for that. One we felt that the toolbox had gone as far as it could as a shell script, and two that was the language used by all the components we rely on and interact with in the container space, like buildah and podman. We also wanted to make it easy for developers on those projects to contribute by using the same language as they use in their projects. Fedora Toolbox running on Fedora Workstation 32 ### Performance improvements Another area that we always try to give some love is general performance improvement. For example this time around Christian Hergert identified some really bad behavior of GNOME shell when running on a system with very high I/O. At the face of it GNOME Shell didn’t look like it should have been affected, but during some intensive debugging sessions Christian Hergert discovered that I/O was triggered by various API calls to do things like string translation. So he put together a set of patches to resolve the high I/O stalls and can now report that GNOME Shell keeps running smoothly as silk, even under high disk I/O situations. ### PipeWire Wim Taymans keeps making great strides forward with PipeWire, our tool for creating a unified media handler for audio, pro-audio and Video. In Fedora Workstation 32 we will be shipping the 0.3 version which has quite complete Jack support. In fact we are hoping to team up with the Fedora Jam team to finalize the Jack support during the Fedora 32 lifecycle by testing it extensively. We have a lot of Jacks apps already working with PipeWire, including a series of important Jack apps that we have put into Flatpaks in Fedora like Carla. While the support is there in PipeWire in Fedora 32 right now, there are some convenience work we are still needing to do, but we hope to get that pushed out by next week to make replacing Jack with PipeWire becomes very simple to both do and undo for testing purposes. The PulseAudio support is the last piece that are still in progress. It works for simple music playback, but it is not a drop in replacement for PulseAudio yet, so while we hoped to encourage widespread testing in F32 we will aim at delaying that to F33 in order to polish the PulseAudio support more first. But once ready we will make this available for testing in a simple manner just like the Jack support. There has also been further work on the video side of PipeWire, adding support for zero copy video capture, this has reduced the overhead of doing things like screen capturing significantly and should be a nice performance/resource usage improvement for everyone. ### Firefox on Wayland Martin Stransky and Jan Horak has been working hard to improve how Firefox runs and works when used as a Wayland native application fixing a truckload of bigger and smaller bugs this cycle. We feel that we crossed the corner now in terms of the Wayland version being just as stable and good as the X11 one. In fact we could move beyond just fixing bugs to actually adding features this time around for instance Martin Stransky worked on WebGL HW acceleration support enabling us to have that enabled by default now for the first time. We also made sure to taking advantage of the Pipewire zero copy support to improve your video conferencing applications running under Firefox which turned out to be even more important than we expected considering Covid-19 has everyone working from home. ## Looking forward We spent a lot of time and energy over the last 6 years to get to where we are now, putting in place a lot of the basic building blocks needed to make Linux a great desktop operating system. And it feels great that just as we kick of the new line of Lenovo laptops running Fedora we are also entering a new phase of development where we can move beyond getting our basic infrastructure in place, but we can really start taking advantage of it to rapidly improve the experience we are providing even more. A good example is the Firefox work mentioned above, where we finally could move on from ‘make it work with Wayland and PipeWire, to ‘lets take advantage of these new pieces to make Firefox on Linux better’. Another example here is that Adam Jackson is currently investigating how we can improve how Fedora Workstation performs for remote usage. This work includes looking at things like VNC and RDP and commercial offerings and figuring out how we can make our stack work better with such tools, on top of the improvements that PipeWire brings for such usecases. There is some more heavy lifting needed before our next generation OS architecture, Silverblue, is ready to be our default offering, but it is improving leaps and bounds each release and already have a loyal following, personally I am very excited about the fact that we are quickly moving closer the point were we can make it our default and through that offer features like bulletproof OS updates, factory resets and solid version rollbacks. On the Flatpak side Owen Taylor and Alex Larsson are putting in a lot of final touches on our Red Hat infrastructure. So for RHEL8.2 we will finally be able to build Flatpaks in RHEL infrastructure and provide a runtime and SDK for our RHEL customers to use. But equally exciting is that we will be able to offer these to the community at large, meaning that we can offer a high quality Flatpak Long Term Support runtime and SDK for ISVs that they can use to both target RHEL users, but also Fedora and other Linux distributions with, in a similar vein to how the Red Hat UBI works. We will also be looking at ways to make getting access to these on Fedora very simple for developers, so that developing towards this runtime becomes quick and easy on your Fedora system. Alex and Owen are also working on an incremental updates feature to be shared between Kubernetes containers and OCI Flatpaks, making both technologies better and updates a lot smaller. We are also looking at a host of other smaller improvements, many of them in collaboration with our friends at Lenovo, like lap detection (so you can be sure the laptop doesn’t burn you), privacy features (like making it harder to read your screen from an angle) and far field microphones. There are also things like Lennarts HomeD idea which we will be looking at as a way to improve the end user experience. So the future is looking bright and I hope to see many new faces in the Fedora community going forward, be that if you download Fedora Workstation 32 to install on your own system yourself or if you join us through buying a Fedora laptop from Lenovo this summer.  April 26, 2020 The ELF data format divides object files into segments and sections, which has for long caused confusion. Both terms segment and section can be used interchangeably in almost all cases in the English language ([1], [2]). What is often overlooked is that the ELF specification explicitely meant both to mean almost the same. They merely provide two views of the same data, but use different terms to allow referring to them more easily. When we look at the defining specification (gABI: System V Application Binary Interface) we find this quote in the introduction: Object files participate in program linking (building a program) and program execution (running a program). For convenience and efficiency, the object file format provides parallel views of a file’s contents, reflecting the differing needs of those activities. This is, in my opinion, a crucial detail often overlooked. The ELF data format explicitly provides two views of the same data. The difference between segments and sections is thus not what data they contain, but how they index the same data. The specification goes a step further: A program header table tells the system how to create a process image. Files used to build a process image (execute a program) must have a program header table; relocatable files do not need one. A section header table contains information describing the file’s sections. Every section has an entry in the table; each entry gives information such as the section name, the section size, and so on. Files used during linking must have a section header table; other object files may or may not have one. Keep in mind that the program header table is effectively a segment header table. Therefore, the specification explicitly says that these two data views do not have to be present in a specific file. Depending on the use case, the format allows for only segments or only sections. To summarize, an ELF object file contains data and machine code of a program, which itself is divided into many parts. The ELF format then provides two different views of this same content: segments and sections. However, these are views of the data present in the file, they do not define the content, but merely index it. As a closing note, we must acknowledge how all this evolved over time, though. While the ELF specification provides this neat dual-view, a lot of this freedom is not actually used in most ELF files. Instead, most files are effectively split into many small sections, and the segments merely provide a grouping of sequential sections in the file. Sections have become the tool that drives the data in ELF files, and segments have become a view of that data. But this was a purely artifical interpretation and is not rooted in the ELF data format.  April 24, 2020 So you have probably seen the announcement that Lenovo are launching a set of Fedora Workstation based laptops. I am so happy and proud of this effort as it comes as the culmination of our hard effort over the last 6 years to drain the swamp and make Linux a more viable desktop operating system. I am also so happy and proud that Lenovo was willing to work with us on this effort as they provide us with an incredible opportunity to reach both new and old Linux users around the globe with these systems, being the worlds biggest laptop maker with the widest global reach. Because one important aspect of this is that Lenovo will provide these laptops through all their sales channels in all their markets. This means you can of course order them online through their website, but it also means companies can order them through Lenovos business to business channels and it means that in any country where Lenovo is present you can order them, so this is not a North America only or Europe only, this is truly a global offering. There are a lot of people who has been involved here in helping to make this happen, but special thanks goes to Egbert Gracias from Lenovo who was critical in making this happen and also a special thanks to Alberto Ruiz who spearheaded this effort from our side. Our engineering team here at Red Hat has also been hard at work ensuring we can support these models very well be that by bugfixes to kernel drivers or by polishing up things like the Linux fingerprint support. As we go forward we hope to build on this relationship to take linux laptops to the next level and I am also very happy to say that we got Jared Dominguez on on team now to help us develop better work practices and closer relationships with our hardware partners and original device manufacturers. Also a special thanks to Jakub Steiner for putting together the little sizzle video above, it was supposed to be used at our booth at Red Hat Summit next week, but with that going virtual we repurposed it for this announcement.  April 23, 2020 In Panfrost’s infancy, community members Connor Abbott and Lyude Paul largely reverse-engineered Bifrost and built a proof-of-concept shader dis/assembler. Meanwhile, I focused on the Midgard architecture (Mali T600+), building an OpenGL driver alongside developers like Collaboran Tomeu Vizoso. As Midgard support has grown – including initial GLES3 support – we have now turned our attention to building a Bifrost driver. We at Collabora got to work in late February, with Tomeu porting the Panfrost command stream, while I built up a new Bifrost compiler. This week, we’ve reached our first major milestone: the first 3D renders on Bifrost, including basic texture support! The interface to a modern GPU has two components, the fixed-function command stream and the programmable instruction set architecture. The command stream controls the hardware, dispatching shaders and containing the state required by OpenGL or Vulkan. By contrast, the instruction set encodes the shaders themselves, as with any programmable architecture. Thus the GPU driver contains two major components, generating the command stream and compiling programs respectively. From Midgard to Bifrost, there have been few changes to the command stream. After all, both architectures feature approximately the same OpenGL and Vulkan capabilities, and the fixed-function hardware has not required much driver-visible optimization. The largest changes involve the interfaces between the shaders and the command stream, including the titular shader descriptors. Indeed, squinting command stream traces from Midgard and Bifrost look similar – but the long tail of minor updates implies a nontrivial Panfrost port. But the Bifrost instruction set, on the other hand? A rather different story. Let’s dive in. ## Compiler Bifrost’s instruction set was redesigned completely from Midgard’s, requiring us to build a free software compiler targeting Bifrost from scratch. Midgard’s architecture is characterized as: • Vector. 128-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) allows 32-bit 4-channel SIMD. • Very Long Instruction Word. 5 blocks – scalar/vector add/multiply and special function unit – operate with partial parallelism across 2 pipeline stages. Vector and VLIW architectures promise high-performance in theory, and in theory, theory and practice are the same. In practice, these architectures are extremely difficult to compile efficiently for. Automatic vectorization is difficult; if a shader uses a 3-channel 32-bit vector (vec3), most likely the extra channel will go unused, wasting resources. Likewise, scheduling for VLIW architectures is difficult and slots often go unused, again wasting resources and preventing shaders from reaching peak architectural performance. Bifrost by contrast is: • Scalarish. 32-bit ALU. 32-bit operations are purely scalar, 16-bit/2-channel and 8-bit/4-channel SIMD. 64-bit operation requires a special half-performance mode. • Slightly Long Instruction Word. Bifrost has 2 blocks – fused multiply-add and add – pipelined without parallelism. Simplified special function unit. This redesign promises better performance - and a redesign of Panfrost’s compiler, too. ## Bifrost Intermediate Representation At the heart of a modern compiler is one or more Intermediate Representations (IRs). In Mesa, OpenGL shaders are parsed into GLSL IR – a tree IR expressing language-visible types – which is converted to NIR – a flat static single assignment IR enabling powerful optimizations. Backends convert NIR to a custom backend IR, whose design seals the fate of a compiler. A poor IR design can impede the growth and harm the performance of the entire compiler, while a well-designed IR enables complex features to be implemented naturally with simple, fast code. There is no one-size-fits-all IR; the design necessarily is built to make certain compiler passes (like algebraic optimization) simple at the expense of others (like register allocation), justifying the use of multiple IRs within a compiler. Further, IR design permeates every aspect of the compiler, so IR changes to a mature compiler are difficult. Both Intel and AMD GPU compilers have required ground-up rewrites to fix IR issues, so I was eager to get the Bifrost IR (BIR) right to begin. An IR is simply a set of data structures representing a program. Typically backends use a “flat” IR: a list of blocks, where each block contains a list of instructions. But how do we store an instruction? We could reuse the hardware’s instruction format as-is, with abstract variables instead of registers. It’s tempting, and for simple architectures, it can work. The initial NIR-to-BIR pass is a bit harder than with abstract instructions, but final code generation is trivial, since the packing is already done. Unfortunately, real world instructions sets are irregular and as quirky as their compilers’ developers. Further, they are tightly packed to be small instead of simple. For final assembly, we will always need to pack the machine formats, but with this design, we also need to unpack them. Worse, the machine irregularities will permeate every aspect of the compiler since they are now embedded into the IR. On Bifrost, for example, most operations have multiple unrelated encodings; this design would force much of the compiler to be duplicated. So what if the IR is entirely machine-independent, compiling in the abstract and converting to the machine-specific form at the very end. Such IRs are helpful; in Mesa, the machine-independent NIR facilitates sharing of powerful optimizations across drivers. Unfortunately, some design traits really do affect our compiler. Is there a compromise? Notice the first IR simplifies packing at the expense of the rest of the compiler, whereas the second simplifies NIR-to-BIR at the expense of machine-specific passes. All designs trade complexity in one part of the compiler for another. Hence a good IR simplifies the hardest compiler passes at the expense of the easiest. For us, scheduling and register allocation are NP-complete problems requiring complex heuristics, whereas NIR-to-BIR and packing are linear translations with straightforward rules. Ideally, our IR simplifies scheduling and register allocation, pushing the complexity into NIR-to-BIR and packing. For Bifrost, this yields one golden rule: A single BIR instruction corresponds to a single Bifrost instruction. While single instructions may move during scheduling and be rewired from register allocation, the operation is unaffected. On the other hand, within an instruction: BIR instructions are purely abstract without packing. By delaying packing, we simplify manipulation. So NIR-to-BIR is complicated by the one-to-many mapping of NIR to Bifrost opcodes with special functions; meanwhile, final code generation is complicated by the pattern matching required to infer packing from abstract instructions. But by pushing this complexity to the edges, the optimizations in between are greatly simplified. But speaking of IR mistakes, there is one other common issue… ## 16-bit Support One oversight I made in designing the Midgard IR – an oversight shared by the IR of many other compilers in Mesa – is often assuming instructions to operate on 32-bit data only. In OpenGL with older Mesa versions, this assumption was true as the default float and integer types are 32-bit. However, the assumption is problematic for OpenCL where 8-, 16-, and 64-bit types are first class. Even for OpenGL, it is suboptimal. While the specification mandates minimum precision requirement for operation, fulfillable with 32-bit arithmetic, on shaders using mediump precision qualifiers we may use 16-bit arithmetic instead. About a month ago, Mesa landed support for optimizing mediump fragment shaders to use 16-bit arithmetic, so for Bifrost, we want to make sure we can take advantage of these optimizations. The benefit of reduced precision is two-fold. First, shader computations need to be stored in registers, but space in the register file is scarce, so we need to conserve it. If a shader runs out of registers, it spills to main memory, which is slow, so by using 16-bit types instead of 32-bit, we can reduce spilling. Second, although Bifrost is scalar for 32-bit, it is 2-channel vector for 16-bit. As mentioned, automatic vectorization is difficult, but if shaders are vectorized to begin, the compiler can take advantage of this. As an example, to add 32-bit vector R0-R3 with R4-R7, we need code like: ADD.f32 R0, R0, R4 ADD.f32 R1, R1, R5 ADD.f32 R2, R2, R6 ADD.f32 R3, R3, R7 But in 16-bit mode with vectors R0-R1 and R2-R3: ADD.v2f16 R0, R0, R2 ADD.v2f16 R1, R1, R3 Notice both register usage and instruction count are halved. How do we support this in Mesa? Mesa pipes 16-bitness through NIR into our backend, so we must ensure types are respected across our backend compiler. To do so, we include types explicitly in our backend intermediate representation, which the NIR-to-BIR pass simply passes through from NIR. Certain backend optimizations have to be careful to respect these types, whereas others work with little change provided the IR is well-designed. Scheduling is mostly unaffected. But where are there major changes? Enter register allocation. ## Register allocation A fundamental problem every backend compiler faces is register allocation, mapping abstract IR variables to concrete machine registers: 0 = load uniform #0 1 = load attribute #0 2 = add 0, 1 3 = mul 2, 2 $$\rightarrow$$ R0 = load uniform #0 R1 = load attribute #0 R0 = add R0, R1 R0 = mul R0, R0 Traditionally, register allocation is modeled by a graph, where each IR variable is represented by a node. Any variables that are simultaneously live, in the sense that both of their values will be read later in the program, are said to interfere since they require separate registers to avoid clobbering each other’s data. Interference is represented by edges. Then the problem reduces to graph colouring, finding colours (registers) for each node (variable) that don’t coincide with the colours (registers) of any nodes connected by edges (interfering variables). Initially, Panfrost used a graph colouring approach. However, the algorithm above is difficult to adapt to irregular vector architectures. One alternative approach is to model the register file explicitly, modeling modeling interference as constraints and using a constraint solver to allocate registers. For the above program, letting $$k_i$$ denote the register allocated to variable $$i$$, there is a single constraint on the registers $$k_0 \ne k_1$$, since $$(0, 1)$$ is the only pair interfering nodes, yielding a optimal valid solution $$k_0 = 0, k_1 = 1, k_2 = 0, k_3 = 0$$, corresponding to the allocation above. As-is, this approach is mathematically equivalent to graph colouring. However, unlike graph colouring, it extends easily to model vectorization, enabling per-component liveness tracking, so some components of a vector are allocated to a register while others are reused for another value. It also extends easily to vectors of varying type sizes, crucial for 16-bit support, whereas the corresponding generalization for graph colouring is much more complicated. This work was originally conducted in October for the Midgard compiler, but the approach works just as well for Bifrost. Although Bifrost is conceptually “almost” scalar, there are enough corner cases where we dip into vector structures that a vector-aware register allocator is useful. In particular, 16-bit instructions involve subdivides 32-bit registers, and vectorized input/output requires contiguous registers; both are easily modeled with linear-style constraints. ## Packing The final stage of a backend compiler is packing (final code generation), taking the scheduled, register allocated IR and assembling a final binary. Compared to Midgard, packing for Bifrost is incredibly complicated. Why? Vectorized programs for vector architectures can be smaller than equivalent programs for scalar architectures. The above instruction sequences to add a 4-channel vector corresponds to just a single instruction on Midgard: VADD.FADD R0.xyzw, R0.xyzw, R1.xyzw We would like to minimize program size, since accesses to main memory are slow and increasing the size of the instruction cache is expensive. By minimizing size, smaller caches can be used with better efficiency. Unfortunately, naively scalarizing the architecture by a factor of 4 would appear to inflate program size by 4x, requiring a 4x larger cache for the same performance. We can do better than simply duplicating instructions. First, by simplifying the vector semantics (since we know most code will be scalar or small contiguous vectors), we eliminate vector write masks and swizzles. But this may not be good enough. Bifrost goes beyond to save instruction bits in any way possible, since small savings in instruction encoding accumulate quickly in complex shaders. For example, Bifrost separates medium-latency register file accesses from low latency “port” accesses, loading registers into ports ahead of the instruction. There are 64 registers (32-bits each), requiring 6-bits to index a register number. The structure to specify which registers should be loaded looks like: unsigned port_0 : 5; unsigned port_1 : 6; We have 6 bits to encode port 1, but only 5 bits for port 0. Does that mean port 0 can only load registers R0-R31, instead of the full range? Actually, no - if port 0 is smaller than port 1, the port numbers are as you would expect. But Bifrost has a trick: if port 0 is larger than port 1, then the hardware subtracts 63 from both ports to get the actual port number. In effect, the ordering of the ports is used as an implicit extra bit, storing 12-bits of port data in 11-bits on the wire. (What if the port numbers are equal? Then just reuse the same port!) Similar tricks permeate the architecture, a win for code size but a loss for compiler packing complexity. The good news is that our compiler’s packing code is self-contained and unit tested independent of the rest of the compiler. ## Conclusion Putting it all together, we have the beginnings of a Bifrost compiler, sufficient for the screenshots above. Next will be adding support for more complex instructions and scheduling to support more complex shaders. Architecturally, Bifrost turns Midgard on its head, ideally bringing performance improvements but rather complicating the driver. While Bifrost support in Panfrost is still early, it’s progressing rapidly. The compiler code required for the screenshots above is all upstreamed, and the command stream code is working its way up. So stay tuned, and happy hacking. Originally posted on Collabora’s blog  April 15, 2020 I am pleased to announce the KWinFT project and with it the first public release of its major open source offerings KWinFT and Wrapland, drop-in replacements for KDE's window manager KWin and its accompanying KWayland library. The KWinFT project was founded by me at the beginning of this year with the goal to accelerate the development significantly in comparison to KWin. Classic KWin can only be moved with caution, since many people rely on it in their daily computing and there are just as many other stakeholders. In this respect, at least for some time, I anticipated to be able to push KWinFT forward in a much more dynamic way. Over time I refined this goal though and defined additional objectives to supplement the initial vision to ensure its longevity. And that became in my view now equally important: to provide a sane, modern, well organized development process, something KWinFT users won't notice directly but hopefully will benefit from indirectly by enabling the achievement of the initial goal of rapid pace development while retaining the overall stability of the product. ## What is in there for you If you are primarily a consumer of Linux graphics technology this announcement may not seem especially exciting for you. Right now and in the near future the focus of KWinFT is inwards: to formulate and establish great structures for its development process, multiplying all later development efforts. Examples are continuous integration with different code linters, scheduled and automatic builds and tests, as well as policies to increase developer's effectiveness. This will hopefully in many ways accelerate the KWinFT progress in the future. But there are already some experimental features in the first release that you might look out for: • My rework of KWin's composition pipeline that, according to some early feedback last year, improves the presentation greatly on X11 and Wayland. Additionally a timer was added to minimize the latency from image creation to its depiction on screen. • The Wayland viewporter extension was implemented enabling better presentation of content for example for video players and with the next XWayland major release to emulate resolution changes for many older games. • Full support for output rotation and mirroring in the Wayland session. ## How to get KWinFT not later than now Does this sound interesting to you? You are in luck! The first official release is already available and if you use Manjaro Linux with its unstable branch enabled, you can even try it out right now by installing the kwinft package. And you may switch back to classic KWin in no time by installing again the kwin package. Your dependencies will be updated in both directions without further ado. I hope KWinFT and Wrapland will soon become available in other distributions as well. But at this moment I must thank the Manjaro team for making this happen on very short notice. Here I also want to thank Ilya Bizyaev for testing my builds from time to time in the last few weeks and giving me direct feedback when something needed to be fixed. ## Future directions For the rest of this article let me outline the strategy I will follow in the future with the KWinFT project. I will expand on these goals in upcoming blog posts as time permits. ### An optimized development process I already mentioned that defining and maintaining a healthy development process in KWinFT is an absolute focus objective for me. This is the basis on that any future development effort can pick up momentum or if neglected will be held back. And that was a huge problem with KWin in the last year and I can say with certainty that I was not the only developer who suffered because of that. I tried to improve the situation in the past inside KWin but the larger an organization and the more numerous the stakeholders become the more difficult it is for any form of change to manifest. In open source software development we have the amazing advantage to be able to circumvent this blockade by rebooting a project in a fresh organisational paradigm what we call a fork. This has all so many risks and challenges as one could expect, so such a decision should not be taken lightly and needs a lot of conviction, preparation and dedication. I won't go into anymore detail here but I plan to write more articles on what I see as current deficits in KDE's organisation of development processes, how I plan to make sure such issues won't plague KWinFT as well and in which ways these solutions could be at least partly adopted in KDE as well in order to improve the situation there too. And while I don't have to say much positive about the current state of KDE right now, don't forget that KDE is an organisation which withstood the test of time with a history reaching back more than 20 years. An organisation that had a positive impact on many people. Such an organisation must not be slated but fostered and enhanced. ### KWinFT with focus on Wayland The project is called KWinFT because its primary offering right now is the window manager KWinFT, a fork of KWin. The strategy I will follow for this open source offering is centered around developer focus. The time and resources of open source developers are not limitless and the window compositor is a central building piece in any desktop making it a natural point of contention. One solution is permanently trying to make everyone happy through compromise and consensus. That is the normal pattern in large organisations. Dynamic progress is the opposite of that, instead featuring a trial-and-error approach and the sad reality that sometimes corners must be cut and hearts be broken for achieving a greater good. Both these patterns can be valid approaches in different times and contexts. KDE naturally can only employ the first one, KWinFT is destined to employ the second one. A major focus for the overall KWinFT project and in particular its window manager will be Wayland. That won't mean to make it just about usable at whatever the cost, but to put KWinFT's Wayland session on a rock-solid solution, rework it as often as needed, grind it out until it is right without any compromise. And boy, does it need that! To say it bluntly, even with the risk of getting cited out of context: in 2020 still KWin and KWayland are a mess. Sure, the superficial impression improved over time but there are many deep and fundamental flaws in the architecture that require one or better several developers and project lifetimes of not days or weeks, but months. Let me skip the details for now and instead go directly to the biggest offender. ### Wrapland in modern C++ and without Qt Wrapland was forked from KWayland alongside with KWinFT. I knew KWayland's architecture before of course already, but there is knowing and understanding. And what I have learned additionally about KWayland's internals in the last few months was shocking. And with the current vision that I follow for Wrapland I would not call Wrapland a fork anymore, rather a reboot. The very first issue ticket I opened in Wrapland was somewhat a gamble back at that time but in hind sight quite visionary. The issue asks to remove Wrapland's Qt dependency. When I opened this ticket I wasn't aware of all the puzzle pieces, I couldn't be. But now two months later I am more convinced by that goal than ever before. A C++ library that provides a wrapper for the C-style library libwayland is useful, a C++ library in conformance with the C++ Core Guidelines, leveraging the most current C++ standard. That means in particular without using Qt concepts like their moc, raw pointers everywhere and the prevailing use of dynamic over static inheritance. KWinFT and potentially many other applications, for example from games with nested composition up to the UIs of large industrial machinery, could make great use of a well designed, unit tested, battle-hardened C++ Wayland library that employs modern C++ features for type and memory safety to their full extend. And that only covers Wrapland's server part. Although clients often use complete toolkit for their windowing system integration it is not hard to envision use cases where more direct access is needed and a C++ library is preferred. The advantages by leveraging Qt in comparison would be primarily the possibility to add QML bindings. This can be useful as some interesting applications leveraging QtWayland's server part prove. But it is minuscule in KWinFT's use case. And what the compositor that Wrapland is written against does not make use of can not be a development objective of this library in the foreseeable future. I am currently rewriting the server part of Wrapland in this spirit. You can check out the overview ticket that I created for planning the rewrite and the current prototype I am working on. Note that the development is still ongoing on a fundamental level and there might be more iterations necessary before a final structure manifests. While the remodel of the server part is certainly exciting and I do plan something similar for the client part, this project will need to wait some more. For now I "only" reworked most of the client library to not leak memory in every second place. This allows to run unit tests on the GitLab CI for merge requests and on push in a robust manner. This rework, which contained also fixes for the server part, resulted in a massive merge with 40 commits and over 6000 changed lines. ### A beacon of modern technologies Leveraging modern language features of C++ is one objective, but a far more important one for this project is in the domain to find KWinFT is really created for: computer graphics and their presentation and organisation in an optimal way to the user. But here I declare just a single goal: KWinFT must be at the top of every major development in this domain. Too often in the past KWin was sidelined, or rather sidelined itself, when new technology emerged trying to catch up later on. The state of Wayland on Plasma in 2020 is testament to that. In contrast KWinFT shall be open to new developments in the larger community and if manpower permits spearhead such itself, not necessarily as a maverick but in concert with the many other great single and multi-developer projects on freedesktop.org and beyond. This leads over to the final founding principle of KWinFT. ### Open to other communities and technologies A major goal I pursued last year already as a KWin developer and that I want to expand upon with KWinFT is my commitment to building and maintaining meaningful relations with other open source communities. Meaningful means here on one side on a personal level, like when I attended the X.Org Developer and Wine conferences on two consecutive weekends in October last year in Canada and on the way back home the Gnome Shell meetup in the Netherlands. But meaningful also means working together, being open to the technologies other projects provide, trying to increase the interoperability instead of locking yourself into the own technology stack. Of course in this respect the primary address that comes to mind is freedesktop.org with the Wayland and X11 projects. But also working together with teams developing other compositors can be very rewarding. For example in Wrapland I recently added a client implementation of wlroots' output management protocol. This will allow users of wlroots-based compositors in the future to use KScreen for configuring their outputs. I want to expand upon that by sharing more protocols and more tools with fellow compositor developers. How about an internal wlroots-based compositor for Wrapland's autotests? This would double-check not only Wrapland's protocol implementation but also wlroot's ones at the same time. If you are interested in designing such a solution in greater details check out Wrapland's contributing guideline and get in touch.  April 07, 2020 $ time git lg
git lg  13.34s user 0.87s system 84% cpu 16.845 total

# True by default as of git v2.24
git config --global core.commitGraph true
git config --global gc.writeCommitGraph true

# Command added in git v2.20
git commit-graph write

$time git lg git lg 0.72s user 0.14s system 74% cpu 1.154 total  This is a speed up of ~18x, compared to the older versions. The way this works is that commit-graph file stores the commit graph structure along with some extra metadata to speed up graph in the .git/objects/info directory.  April 04, 2020 This is a follow up from the kernel support for high-resolution wheel scrolling which you totally forgot about because it's already more then a year in the past and seriously, who has the attention span these days to remember this. Anyway, I finally found time and motivation to pick this up again and I started lining up the pieces like cans, for it only to be shot down by the commentary of strangers on the internet. The Wayland merge request lists the various pieces (libinput, wayland, weston, mutter, gtk and Xwayland) but for the impatient there's also an Fedora 32 COPR. For all you weirdos inexplicably not running the latest Fedora, well, you'll have to compile this yourself, just like I did. Let's recap: in v5.0 the kernel added new axes REL_WHEEL_HI_RES and REL_HWHEEL_HI_RES for all devices. On devices that actually support high-resolution wheel scrolling (Logitech and Microsoft mice, primarily) you'll get multiple hires events before the now-legacy REL_WHEEL events. On all other devices those two are in sync. Integrating this into the userspace stack was a bit of a mess at first, but I think the solution is good enough, even if it has a rather verbose explanation on how to handle it. The actual patches to integrate ended up being relatively simple. So let's see why it's a bit weird: When Wayland started, back in WhoahReallyThatLongAgo, scrolling was specified as the wl_pointer.axis event with a value in pixels. This works fine for touchpads, not so much for wheels. The early versions of Weston decreed that one wheel click was 10 pixels [1] and, perhaps surprisingly, the world kept on turning. When libinput was forked from Weston an early change was that wheel events would have two values - degrees of movement and click count ("discrete steps"). The wayland protocol was expanded to include the discrete steps as wl_pointer.axis_discrete as well. Then backwards compatibility reared its ugly head and Mutter, Weston, GTK all basically said: one discrete step equals 10 pixels so we multiply the discrete value by 10 and, perhaps surprisingly, the world kept on turning. This worked out well enough for a few years but with high resolution wheels we ran into a problem. Discrete steps are integers, so we can't send partial values. And the protocol is defined in a way that any tweaking of the behaviour would result in broken clients which, perhaps surprisingly, is a Bad Thing. This lead to the current proposal of separate events. LIBINPUT_EVENT_POINTER_AXIS_WHEEL and for Wayland the wl_pointer.axis_v120 event, linked to above. These events are (like the kernel events) a parallel event stream to the previous events and effectively replace the LIBINPUT_EVENT_POINTER_AXIS and Wayland wl_pointer.axis/axis_discrete pair for wheel events (not so for touchpad or button scrolling though). The compositor side of things is relatively simple: take the events from libinput and pass the hires ones as v120 events and the lowres ones as v120 events with a value of zero. The client side takes the v120 events and uses them over wl_pointer.axis/axis_discrete unless one is zero in which case you can discard all axis events in that wl_pointer.frame. Since most client implementation already have the support for smooth scrolling (because, well, touchpads do exist) it's relatively simple to integrate - the new events just feed into the smooth scrolling code. And since you already have to do wheel emulation for that (because, well, old clients exist) wheel emulation is handled easily too. All that to provide buttery smooth [2] wheel scrolling. Or not, if your hardware doesn't support it. In which case, well, live with the warm fuzzy feeling that someone else has a better user experience now. Or soon, anyway. [1] with, I suspect, the scientific measurement of "yeah, that seems about alright" [2] like butter out of a fridge, so still chunky but at least less so than before  April 01, 2020 On the road to libfprint and fprintd 2.0, we've been fixing some long-standing bugs, including one that required porting our PAM module from dbus-glib to sd-bus, systemd's D-Bus library implementation. As you can imagine, I have confidence in my ability to write bug-free code at the first attempt, but the foresight to know that this code will be buggy if it's not tested (and to know there's probably a bug in the tests if they run successfully the first time around). So we will have to test that PAM module, thoroughly, before and after the port. Replacing fprintd First, to make it easier to run and instrument, we needed to replace fprintd itself. For this, we used dbusmock, which is both a convenience Python library and way to write instrumentable D-Bus services, and wrote a template. There are a number of existing templates for a lot of session and system services, in case you want to test the integration of your code with NetworkManager, low-memory-monitor, or any number of other services. We then used this to write tests for the command-line utilities, so we can both test our new template and test the command-line utilities themselves. Replacing gdm Now that we've got a way to replace fprintd and a physical fingerprint reader, we should write some tests for the (old) PAM module to replace sudo, gdm, or the login authentication services. Co-workers Andreas Schneier and Jakub Hrozek worked on pam_wrapper, an LD_PRELOAD library to mock the PAM library, and Python helpers to write simple PAM services. This LWN article explains how to test PAM applications, and PAM modules. After fixing a few bugs in pam_wrapper, and combining with the fprintd dbusmock work above, we could wrap and test the fprintd PAM module like it never was before. Porting to sd-bus Finally, porting the PAM module to sd-bus was pretty trivial, a loop of 1) writing tests that work against the old PAM module, 2) porting a section of the code (like the fingerprint reader enumeration, or the timeout support), and 3) testing against the new sd-bus based code. The result was no regressions that we could test for. Conclusion Both dbusmock, and pam_wrapper are useful tools in your arsenal to write tests, and given those (fairly) easy to use CIs in GNOME and FreeDesktop.org's GitLabs, it would be a shame not to. You might also be interested in umockdev, to mock a number of device types, and mocklibc (which combined with dbusmock powers polkit's unattended CI)  March 24, 2020 For the last few months, we have been working on two exciting new projects at Collabora, and it’s finally time to share some information about them with the world: We are partnering with Microsoft DirectX engineers to build OpenCL and OpenGL mapping layers, in order to bring OpenCL 1.2 and OpenGL 3.3 support to all Windows and DirectX 12 enabled devices out there! This work builds on a lot of previous work. First and foremost, we are building this by using Mesa 3D, with the Gallium interface as the base for the OpenGL layer, and NIR as the base for the OpenCL compiler. We are also using LLVM and the SPIRV-LLVM-Translator from Khronos as the compiler front-end. In addition, we are taking advantage of Microsoft’s experience in creating their D3D12 Translation Layer, as well as our own experience from developing Zink. ## What is Mesa 3D? Mesa 3D is an open source implementation of several graphics technologies, including OpenCL and OpenGL. The OpenGL implementation in Mesa is robust and is used as the base for several industry-strength OpenGL drivers from multiple GPU vendors. Among other things, Mesa consists of several API implementations (called state-trackers) as well as the Gallium low-level driver interface. The Gallium interface hides a lot of the legacy OpenGL details and translates OpenGL calls into something that looks more like modern GPU primitives. ## Why translate APIs? Not all Windows-powered devices have consistent support for hardware-accelerated OpenCL and OpenGL. So in order to improve application compatibility, we are building a generic solution to the problem. This means that a GPU vendor only has to implement a D3D12 driver for their hardware in order to support all three APIs. This mapping layer is also expected to serve as a starting point in porting older OpenCL and OpenGL applications over to D3D12. In addition, we believe this is good for the wider open source community. A lot of the problems we are solving here are shared with other drivers and translation layers, and we hope that the code will be useful beyond the use cases listed above. ## Implementation The work is largely split into three parts: an OpenCL compiler, an OpenCL runtime, and a Gallium driver that builds and executes command-buffers on the GPU using the D3D12 API. In addition, there is a shared NIR-to-DXIL shader compiler that both components use. For those not familiar with NIR, it is Mesa’s internal representation for GPU shaders. Similarly, DXIL is Microsoft’s internal representation, which D3D12 drivers will consume and translate into hardware-specific shaders. ### OpenCL compiler The OpenCL compiler uses LLVM and the SPIRV-LLVM-Translator to generate SPIR-V representations of OpenCL kernels. These, in turn, are passed to Mesa’s SPIR-V to NIR translator, where some optimizations and semantical translations are done. Then the NIR representation is finally passed to NIR-to-DXIL, which produces a DXIL compute shader and the needed metadata so it can be executed on the GPU by the runtime using D3D12. Here’s a diagram of the complete process, including NIR-to-DXIL, which will be described below: ### OpenCL runtime While Mesa provides an OpenCL implementation called Clover, we are not using it for this project. Instead, we have a new OpenCL runtime that does a more direct translation to the DirectX 12 API. ### NIR-to-DXIL DXIL is essentially LLVM 3.7 bitcode with some extra metadata and validation. This was a technical choice that made sense for Microsoft because all the major driver vendors already used LLVM in their compiler toolchain. Using an older version of the LLVM bitcode format gives good compatibility with drivers because the LLVM bitcode format is backwards compatible. Because we depend on a much more recent version of LLVM for the compiler front-end, we sadly cannot easily use the DirectX Shader Compiler as a compiler back-end. The DirectX Shader Compiler is effectively a fork of LLVM 3.7, and we are currently using LLVM 10.0 for the compiler front-end. Using DirectX Shader Compiler as that would require us to link two different versions of LLVM into the same binary, which would have led to problems. We also cannot easily use LLVM itself to generate the bitcode. While the LLVM bitcode format is backwards compatible, LLVM itself is not forward compatible. This means that newer versions of LLVM cannot produce a bitcode format that is understood by older versions. This makes sense from LLVM’s point of view because it was never meant as a general interchange format. So instead, we have decided to implement our own DXIL emitter. This is quite a bit harder than it looks because LLVM bitcode goes to great lengths to try to make the format as dense as possible. For instance, LLVM does not store its bitcode as a sequence of bytes and words, but rather as variable-width bitfields in a long sequence of bits. There are a lot of tricky details to get right, but in the end we have a compiler that works. ### D3D12 Gallium driver The D3D12 Gallium driver is the last piece of the puzzle. Essentially, it takes OpenGL commands and, with the help of the NIR to DXIL translator, turns them into D3D12 command-buffers, which it executes on the GPU using the D3D12 driver. There are a lot of interesting details that makes this tricky as well, but I will save those details for later. But to not leave you empty-handed, here’s a screenshot of the Windows version of the famous glxgears, wglgears: ## Source code In the short term, the source code can be found here. We intend on upstreaming this work into the main Mesa repository shortly, so it is not a permanent home. ## Next steps This is just the announcement, and a whole lot of work is left to be done. We have something that works in some cases right now, but we are just starting to scratch the surface. First of all, we need to get up to the feature-level that we target. Our goals at the moment is to pass conformance tests for OpenCL 1.2 and OpenGL 3.3. We have a long way to go, but with some hard work and sweat, I am sure we will get there. Secondly, we need to work on application compatibility. For now we will be focusing on productivity applications. We also want to upstream this in Mesa. This way we can keep up with fixes and new features in Mesa, and other drivers can benefit from what we are doing as well. ## Acknowledgments It is also important to point out that I am not the only one working on this. Our team consists of five additional Collabora engineers (Boris Brezillon, Daniel Stone, Elie Tournier, Gert Wollny, Louis-Francis Ratté-Boulianne) and two Microsoft DirectX engineers (Bill Kristiansen, Jesse Natalie).  March 23, 2020 I finished my last post talking about a patch to fix the XRGB operation in compute crc function (VKMS). [PATCH] drm/vkms: use bitfield op to get xrgb on compute crc I was waiting for the community feedback and I received a review with good suggestions to simplify the solution. Unfortunatelly, despite the correct and useful guidance, the comment was really rude. What is the necessity of someone to give this kind of opinion? This behavior have no benefits, for who send, who receive and for the community. This kind of approach is able to discourage new developers. I know the community has much more skilled and experienced people than me, but people get older, just as they can passed away any time… who will be to support the project continuity? In short, unnecessary. .o/ After I began a simple change in the cursor behavior in VKMS, many related issues started to appear. My initial task seemed simple, sending a proposal to enable cursor by default when loading the vkms module. However, I have now spent a lot of time untangling issues that troubled me to validate that change. This initial task arose after I have asked on the dri-devel IRC channel for suggestions to contribute to VKMS because I am interested in participating in this year’s Google internship program (GSoC). As VKMS’s mentor is Rodrigo Siqueira, he suggested this warm-up task. Each day, I become more familiar with VKMS, so I could quickly realize what I need to modify, and I proposed a simple modification with this patch: [PATCH] drm/vkms: enable cursor by default However, as a newbie, I was not confident only with the logical change on the code. I was curious to see this behavior on bits (or something like this). For this, I thought to look for the cursor on the framebuffer. As I have already played with the IGT test kms_enable_cursor, I considered using the framebuffer of this test to see the cursor. First, according to the context, I checked if variables related to cursor presented values that represent the enabling, putting a lot of pr_info to say: “ok, it looks like working”. Second, I thought I could find a white cursor in the framebuffer of this test whenever the cursor was enabled, since it also is a requirement for the test execution. With this in mind, I ran the subtest pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent to looking for this white cursor and see it become transparent. Then, after some computing, the transparent cursor plane would be blend with the other planes… but, ops… where is the cursor? “Well, maybe there is a problem with the subtest. Let’s run the pipe-A-cursor-alpha-opaque test that I know is working and right passing! Ops, crash? It’s weird!” To face this weird situation encouraged me to dive into the elements of IGT test and understand a little more of what is happening: the abstraction involved, the test execution step by step, searching on web information about Cairo operations called by the tests, etc. I realized the pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent check the CRC from the framebuffer that has already blended a cursor transparent in a black background, with this, it’s not possible to find a white cursor in any step of the test, that was my initial intention. This interpretation matches the output of the pixels printed in my investigation, where only have two possible ARGB pixel values: transparent black and opaque black. I am still not sure if my comprehension is correct, but following this logic helped me to find a solution for the pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent test and also put the other things on a backlog of investigation. ### Backlog of issues to treat 1. Using a VM to run both kms_enable_cursor subtests: pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent/opaque, I put some pr_info to check the path of execution inside vkms features. With this, I could better understand the process of planes blending and CRC computing, and also verify if all steps are executed when I run a subtest. From the opaque-subtest episode of crashing, I figured out an unstable behavior; I verified that the test fails, and nothing was printed even with a pr_info inside each VKMS function involved in the process. I asked Siqueira about this problem, and he suggested to dive inside the hrtimer/vblank operations to check if something is causing a delay. In this problem, a code snippet in vkms_composer.c deserves attention and maybe generating some delay:  * The worker can fall behind the vblank hrtimer, make sure we catch up. */ while (frame_start <= frame_end) drm_crtc_add_crc_entry(crtc, true, frame_start++, &crc32);  I also tried to check the file /sys/kernel/debug/dri/0/crtc-0/crc/data that stores framebuffer and crc values (as explained by Haneen in this post). However, it was blocked and I was unallowed to see its content. These problems together lead me to suspect two possible problems: a lost lock/unlock operation or long busy writing operation. 1. Maybe this issue is related to the problem above. Although I found a solution for pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent, this subtest still displays a warning that needs attention: Suspicious CRC: All values are 0. The weird thing is when I print the pixels in the test, because they are actually all zero (black: 0x000000) after setting the alpha channel for zero, ie, ARGB to XRGB. But this warning does not appear when running past versions of kernel on a host machine. Could it be some debufs implementation fail or some problem on the IGT test construction? I hope to have good news in the next post update. ### Finding a solution for pipe-A-cursor-alpha-transparent crash I needed a strategy to solve these side problems and focus on validating the test’s success after changing the operation. Thus, I decided to check how the code works for both the transparent and the opaque cursor, bringing the idea of complementarity. To do this, I printed pixel values before and after the XRGB operation. This concern occurred because, after several executions, I realized that most of the proposed solutions fall into a trap related to the existence of orders of magnitude (bits x bytes). In my opinion, the ideal solution would prioritize legibility, extracting RGB values without the concern of interpreting small or large expressions and magnitudes. Using a previous experience of contributing to the IIO, I thought about using bitwise / bitfield operations to ensure the interpretation in bits and the extraction of only the RGB bits of interest. With that, I define a GENMASK that get only the first 24 bits (from right to left) and extract those bits using the FIELD_GET function defined in the file: linux / bitfield.h. I learned a little about this operation in a patch I sent a year ago to improve the readability of an IIO staging driver: staging: iio: ad7150: use FIELD_GET and GENMASK. And so my solution was born: [PATCH] drm/vkms: use bitfield op to get xrgb on compute crc I am still waiting for community evaluation and feedback. And now I have new knowledge and a lot of new challenges.  March 20, 2020 Benjamin Tissoires and I have been busy anthophila and working on the freedesktop CI templates. This post is primarily of interest if you're working on GitLab, specifically if your repo is hosted on gitlab.freedesktop.org. If either of those applies, prepare to be distracted from the current pandemic, otherwise maybe just prepare to be entertained. I'll do my best to be less miserable than the news. We all know that CI/CD really helps with finding bugs early. If you don't know that yet, insert a jedi handwave before the previous sentence and now you do. GitLab is the git forge now used by freedesktop.org and it comes with a built-in CI system. I'm leaving out the difficult bits such as actually setting the thing up because this is obviously all handled by Heinzelmännchen and just readily available, hooray. I'm also going to assume that you roughly know how to write GitLab CI jobs or, failing that, at least know how to read YAML without screaming. So for this post, we start with the basic problem that your .gitlab-ci.yml is getting unwieldy, repetitive or generally just kinda sucks to maintain. Which is roughly where libinput and libevdev were a while back which caused Benjamin to start the ci-templates. Now, what do we want? (other than a COVID-19 cure) Reproducible tests, possibly on different distributions, with the same base system across tests. For my repos the goal was basically "test on the common distributions to catch certain bugs early". [1] For Mesa, the requirement is closer to "have a fixed set of images that 'never' change so tests are reproducible". Both goals have much in common. Your first venture into CI will look like this: myjob: image: fedora:31 before_script: - dnf update -y - dnf install -y onepackage twopackage threepackage floor script: - meson builddir && ninja -C builddir test So, in short: take a Fedora 31 docker image, update it [2], install the required packages and then run the actual test part - meson and ninja. Easy. This works fine but it takes approximately forever because dnf update is slow and you're potentially pulling down gigs of packages on every test run. Which is fun, but less so when you have 10 different jobs and they all do that. So let's call this step 1 and pretend we're more advanced than that. Step 2 is where you start building an image you re-use, steps 3 to N are the bits where you learn more than you want to know about docker, podman, skopeo and how many typos you can put into a YAML file. So, ad break, and we jump right to the part where enlightenment is just around the corner or wherever enlightenment lurks these days. ## Using the CI Templates Here's the .gitlab-ci.yml to build a Fedora 31 images with ci-templates and run the test on that image: include: - project: 'freedesktop/ci-templates' ref: 123456deadbeef file: '/templates/fedora.yml'variables: # project name of the upstream repo FDO_UPSTREAM_REPO: someproject/namestages: - prep - testmyimage: extends: .fdo.container-build@fedora stage: prep variables: FDO_DISTRIBUTION_VERSION: '31' FDO_DISTRIBUTION_PACKAGES: 'onepackage twopackage threepackage floor' FDO_DISTRIBUTION_TAG: '2020-03-20.0'myjob: extends: .fdo.distribution-image@fedora stage: test script: - meson builddir && ninja -C builddir test variables: FDO_DISTRIBUTION_VERSION: '31' FDO_DISTRIBUTION_TAG: '2020-03-20.0' Now, you guessed correctly that the .fdo and FDO_ prefixes are used by the templates. There is a bunch of stuff hidden here. Basically, this will: • check if the image exists in your personal project's registry and use that, but if not • check if the image exists in the given upstream project's registry and use that, but if not • create a Fedora 31 image with the given packages installed and pushes it with the tag to the registry • use that image (whether newly created or pre-existing) and run the tests on it There are a few more details too, but that's roughly the summary of it. For existing tags, the the myimage job effectively becomes a noop and the myjob job will re-use the image. The image will be in your registry so you can podman run it locally to reproduce a bug. To build a new image, simply change the tag. Either because you want newer packages or you need extra (or less packages). And the nice thing here: you will build a new image as part of your merge request and run the CI against that new image. But upstream and every other MR will keep using the old image - right up until your MR is merged at which point every (future) MR will use that new updated image. Want to build a Debian Stretch image? Replace Fedora and 31 with debian and stretch. Same for Ubuntu, Centos, Alpine and Arch though for those two you don't need a version number. ## Templating the templates "But, but, Peter, I want to test on eleventy different distribution like you do" I hear you say. Well, fear not, for this is where the ci-fairy comes in. How about we *gasp* generate the .gitlab-ci.yml file from a base configuration? That can't possibly be a bad idea, so let's do that! First, we save our configuration into the .gitlab-ci/config.yml: distributions: - name: fedora tag: 12345 version: 30 - name: ubuntu tag: abcde version: '19.10' # and so on, and so forthpackages: - curl - wget - gcc There is no specific requirement on the structure of the config file, ci-fairy simply loads it and passes it to Jinja2. Your template could thus look like this .gitlab-ci/ci.template file: include:{% for d in distributions %} - project: 'freedesktop/ci-templates' ref: 123456deadbeef file: '/templates/{{d.name}}.yml'{% endfor %}stages: - prep - test{% for d in distributions %}.{{d.name}}.{{d.version}}: variables: FDO_DISTRIBUTION_VERSION: '{{d.version}}' FDO_DISTRIBUTION_TAG: '{{d.tag}}'myimage.{{d.name}}.{{d.version}}: extends: - .fdo.container-build@{{d.name}} - .{{d.name}}.{{d.version}} stage: prep variables: FDO_DISTRIBUTION_PACKAGES: "{{' '.join(packages)}}"myjob.{{d.name}}.{{d.version}}: extends: - .fdo.distribution-image@{{d.name}} - .{{d.name}}.{{d.version}} stage: test script: - meson builddir && ninja -C builddir{% endfor %} And to locally generate our .gitlab-ci.yml, all we need to do is $ pip3 install git+http://gitlab.freedesktop.org/freedesktop/ci-templates$cd path/to/project$ ci-fairy generate-template$ci-fairy lint # checks the resulting YAML for syntax errors$ git commit .gitlab-ci.yml
And, for reference, the file we generated here looks like this:
include:   - project: 'freedesktop/ci-templates'     ref: 123456deadbeef     file: '/templates/fedora.yml'   - project: 'freedesktop/ci-templates'     ref: 123456deadbeef     file: '/templates/ubuntu.yml'stages:  - prep  - test.fedora.30:  variables:    FDO_DISTRIBUTION_VERSION: '30'    FDO_DISTRIBUTION_TAG: '12345'myimage.fedora.30:  extends:    - .fdo.container-build@fedora    - .fedora.30  stage: prep  variables:    FDO_DISTRIBUTION_PACKAGES: "curl wget gcc"myjob.fedora.30:  extends:    - .fdo.distribution-image@fedora    - .fedora.30  stage: test  script:    - meson builddir && ninja -C builddir.ubuntu.19.10:  variables:    FDO_DISTRIBUTION_VERSION: '19.10'    FDO_DISTRIBUTION_TAG: 'abcde'myimage.ubuntu.19.10:  extends:    - .fdo.container-build@ubuntu    - .ubuntu.19.10  stage: prep  variables:    FDO_DISTRIBUTION_PACKAGES: "curl wget gcc"myjob.ubuntu.19.10:  extends:    - .fdo.distribution-image@ubuntu    - .ubuntu.19.10  stage: test  script:    - meson builddir && ninja -C builddir
Aside from the templating a new thing here is the e.g. .fedora.30 template what we extend from. This is an easy way to avoid having to set things like the distribution version and the tag multiple times. And a few things of note: the tag is job-specific (not distribution-specific). So you could have two Fedora 30 images with two different tags. This is also just an example I typed out, a real-world .gitlab-ci.yml will look more complex and different. So only rely on the above to get an idea of what's possible.

A word for non-gitlab.freedesktop.org users: You can use the remote: include directive to use the templates from elsewhere. ci-fairy isn't tied to freedesktop.org either but you'll have to provide more flags to get what you want instead of relying on the default behaviours.

The documentation for CI Templates has more, go and peruse my pretties.

[1] For months the CI was basically just a build test because I couldn't run the test suite in a container
[2] Updating isn't always required but sooner or later you run into a dependency issue if you don't

 March 16, 2020

This article isn’t about anything “new”, like the previous ones on AppStream – it rather exists to shine the spotlight on a feature I feel is underutilized. From conversations it appears that the reason simply is that people don’t know that it exists, and of course that’s a pretty bad reason not to make your life easier

Mini-Disclaimer: I’ll be talking about appstreamcli, part of AppStream, in this blogpost exclusively. The appstream-util tool from the appstream-glib project has a similar functionality – check out its help text and look for appdata-to-news if you are interested in using it instead.

AppStream permits software to add release information to their MetaInfo files to describe current and upcoming releases. This feature has the following advantages:

• Distribution-agnostic format for release descriptions
• Provides versioning information for bundling systems (Flatpak, AppImage, …)
• Release texts are short and end-user-centric, not technical as the ones provided by distributors usually are
• Release texts are fully translatable using the normal localization workflow for MetaInfo files
• Releases can link artifacts (built binaries, source code, …) and have additional machine-readable metadata e.g. one can tag a release as a development release

The disadvantage of all this, is that humans have to maintain the release information. Also, people need to write XML for this. Of course, once humans are involved with any technology, things get a lot more complicated. That doesn’t mean we can’t make things easier for people to use though.

Did you know that you don’t actually have to edit the XML in order to update your release information? To make creating and maintaining release information as easy as possible, the appstreamcli utility has a few helpers built in. And the best thing is that appstreamcli, being part of AppStream, is available pretty ubiquitously on Linux distributions.

## Update release information from NEWS data

The NEWS file is a not very well defined textfile that lists “user-visible changes worth mentioning” per each version. This maps pretty well to what AppStream release information should contain, so let’s generate that from a NEWS file!

Since the news format is not defined, but we need to parse this somehow, the amount of things appstreamcli can parse is very limited. We support a format in this style:

Version 0.2.0
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Released: 2020-03-14

Notes:
* Important thing 1
* Important thing 2

Features:
* New/changed feature 1
* New/changed feature 2 (Author Name)
* ...

Bugfixes:
* Bugfix 1
* Bugfix 2
* ...

Version 0.1.0
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Released: 2020-01-10

Features:
* ...


When parsing a file like this, appstreamcli will allow a lot of errors/”imperfections” and account for quite a few style and string variations. You will need to check whether this format works for you. You can see it in use in appstream itself and libxmlb for a slightly different style.

So, how do you convert this? We first create our NEWS file, e.g. with this content:

Version 0.2.0
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Released: 2020-03-14

Bugfixes:
* The CPU no longer overheats when you hold down spacebar

Version 0.1.0
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Released: 2020-01-10

Features:
* Now plays a "zap" sound on every character input


For the MetaInfo file, we of course generate one using the MetaInfo Creator. Then we can run the following command to get a preview of the generated file: appstreamcli news-to-metainfo ./NEWS ./org.example.myapp.metainfo.xml - Note the single dash at the end – this is the explicit way of telling appstreamcli to print something to stdout. This is how the result looks like:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<component type="desktop-application">
[...]
<releases>
<release type="stable" version="0.2.0" date="2020-03-14T00:00:00Z">
<description>
<p>This release fixes the following bug:</p>
<ul>
<li>The CPU no longer overheats when you hold down spacebar</li>
</ul>
</description>
</release>
<release type="stable" version="0.1.0" date="2020-01-10T00:00:00Z">
<description>
<p>This release adds the following features:</p>
<ul>
<li>Now plays a "zap" sound on every character input</li>
</ul>
</description>
</release>
</releases>
</component>


Neat! If we want to save this to a file instead, we just exchange the dash with a filename. And maybe we don’t want to add all releases of the past decade to the final XML? No problem too, just pass the --limit flag as well: appstreamcli news-to-metainfo --limit=6 ./NEWS ./org.example.myapp.metainfo.tmpl.xml ./result/org.example.myapp.metainfo.xml

That’s nice on its own, but we really don’t want to do this by hand… The best way to ensure the MetaInfo file is updated, is to simply run this command at build time to generate the final MetaInfo file. For the Meson build system you can achieve this with a code snippet like below (but for CMake this shouldn’t be an issue either – you could even make a nice macro for it there):

ascli_exe = find_program('appstreamcli')
metainfo_with_relinfo = custom_target('gen-metainfo-rel',
input : ['./NEWS', 'org.example.myapp.metainfo.xml'],
output : ['org.example.myapp.metainfo.xml'],
command : [ascli_exe, 'news-to-metainfo', '--limit=6', '@INPUT0@', '@INPUT1@', '@OUTPUT@']
)


In order to also translate releases, you will need to add this to your .pot file generation workflow, so (x)gettext can run on the MetaInfo file with translations merged in.

## Release information from YAML files

Since parsing a “no structure, somewhat human-readable file” is hard without baking an AI into appstreamcli, there is also a second option available: Generate the XML from a YAML file. YAML is easy to write for humans, but can also be parsed by machines.The YAML structure used here is specific to AppStream, but somewhat maps to the NEWS file contents as well as MetaInfo file data. That makes it more versatile, but in order to use it, you will need to opt into using YAML for writing news entries. If that’s okay for you to consider, read on!

A YAML release file has this structure:

---
Version: 0.2.0
Date: 2020-03-14
Type: development
Description:
- The CPU no longer overheats when you hold down spacebar
- Fixed bugs ABC and DEF
---
Version: 0.1.0
Date: 2020-01-10
Description: |-
This is our first release!

Now plays a "zap" sound on every character input


As you can see, the release date has to be an ISO 8601 string, just like it is assumed for NEWS files. Unlike in NEWS files, releases can be defined as either stable or development depending on whether they are a stable or development release, by specifying a Type field. If no Type field is present, stable is implicitly assumed. Each release has a description, which can either be a free-form multi-paragraph text, or a list of entries.

Converting the YAML example from above is as easy as using the exact same command that was used before for plain NEWS files: appstreamcli news-to-metainfo --limit=6 ./NEWS.yml ./org.example.myapp.metainfo.tmpl.xml ./result/org.example.myapp.metainfo.xml If appstreamcli fails to autodetect the format, you can help it by specifying it explicitly via the --format=yaml flag. This command would produce the following result:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<component type="console-application">
[...]
<releases>
<release type="development" version="0.2.0" date="2020-03-14T00:00:00Z">
<description>
<ul>
<li>The CPU no longer overheats when you hold down spacebar</li>
<li>Fixed bugs ABC and DEF</li>
</ul>
</description>
</release>
<release type="stable" version="0.1.0" date="2020-01-10T00:00:00Z">
<description>
<p>This is our first release!</p>
<p>Now plays a "zap" sound on every character input</p>
</description>
</release>
</releases>
</component>


Note that the 0.2.0 release is now marked as development release, a thing which was not possible in the plain text NEWS file before.

## Going the other way

Maybe you like writing XML, or have some other tool that generates the MetaInfo XML, or you have received your release information from some other source and want to convert it into text. AppStream also has a tool for that! Using appstreamcli metainfo-to-news <metainfo-file> <news-file> you can convert a MetaInfo file that has release entries into a text representation. If you don’t want appstreamcli to autodetect the right format, you can specify it via the --format=<text|yaml> switch.

## Future considerations

The release handling is still not something I am entirely happy with. For example, the release information has to be written and translated at release time of the application. For some projects, this workflow isn’t practical. That’s why issue #240 exists in AppStream which basically requests an option to have release notes split out to a separate, remote location (and also translations, but that’s unlikely to happen). Having remote release information is something that will highly likely happen in some way, but implementing this will be a quite disruptive, if not breaking change. That is why I am holding this change back for the AppStream 1.0 release.

In the meanwhile, besides improving the XML form of release information, I also hope to support a few more NEWS text styles if they can be autodetected. The format of the systemd project may be a good candidate. The YAML release-notes format variant will also receive a few enhancements, e.g. for specifying a release URL. For all of these things, I very much welcome pull requests or issue reports. I can implement and maintain the things I use myself best, so if I don’t use something or don’t know about a feature many people want I won’t suddenly implement it or start to add features at random because “they may be useful”. That would be a recipe for disaster. This is why for these features in particular contributions from people who are using them in their own projects or want their new usecase represented are very welcome.

 March 07, 2020

This year’s FOSDEM conference was a lot of fun – one of the things I always enjoy most about this particular conference (besides having some of the outstanding food you can get in Brussels and meeting with friends from the free software world) is the ability to meet a large range of new people who I wouldn’t usually have interacted with, or getting people from different communities together who otherwise would not meet in person as each bigger project has their own conference (for example, the amount of VideoLAN people is much lower at GUADEC and Akademy compared to FOSDEM). It’s also really neat to have GNOME and KDE developers within reach at the same place, as I care about both desktops a lot.

### An unexpected issue

This blog post however is not about that. It’s about what I learned when talking to people there about AppStream, and the outcome of that. Especially when talking to application authors but also to people who deal with larger software repositories, it became apparent that many app authors don’t really want to deal with the extra effort of writing metadata at all. This was a bit of a surprise to me, as I thought that there would be a strong interest for application authors to make their apps look as good as possible in software catalogs.

A bit less surprising was the fact that people apparently don’t enjoy reading a large specification, reading a long-ish intro guide with lots of dos and don’ts or basically reading any longer text at all before being able to create an AppStream MetaInfo/AppData file describing their software.

Another common problem seems to be that people don’t immediately know what a “reverse-DNS ID” is, the format AppStream uses for uniquely identifying each software component. So naturally, people either have to read about it again (bah, reading! ) or make something up, which occasionally is wrong and not the actual component-ID their software component should have.

### The MetaInfo Creator

It was actually suggested to me twice that what people really would like to have is a simple tool to put together a MetaInfo file for their software. Basically a simple form with a few questions which produces the final file. I always considered this a “nice to have, but not essential” feature, but now I was convinced that this actually has a priority attached to it.

So, instead of jumping into my favourite editor and writing a bunch of C code to create this “make MetaInfo file” form as part of appstreamcli, this time I decided to try what the cool kids are doing and make a web application that runs in your browser and creates all metadata there.

So, behold the MetaInfo Creator! If you click this link, you will end up at an Angular-based web application that will let you generate MetaInfo/AppData files for a few component-types simply by answering a set of questions.

The intent was to make this tool as easy to use as possible for someone who basically doesn’t know anything about AppStream at all. Therefore, the tool will:

• Generate a rDNS component-ID suggestion automatically based on the software’s homepage and name
• Fill out default values for anything it thinks it has enough data for
• Show short hints for what values we expect for certain fields
• Interactively validate the entered value, so people know immediately when they have entered something invalid
• Produce a .desktop file as well for GUI applications, if people select the option for it
• Create some Meson snippets as pointers how people can integrate the MetaInfo files into projects using the Meson build system

For the Meson feature, the tool simply can not generate a “use this and be done” script, as each Meson snippet needs to be adjusted for the individual project. So this option is disabled by default, but when enabled, a few simple Meson snippets will be produced which can be easily adjusted to the project they should be part of.

The tool currently does not generate any release information for a MetaInfo file at all, This may be added in future. The initial goal was to have people create any MetaInfo file in the first place, having projects also ship release details would be the icing on the cake.

I hope people find this project useful and use it to create better MetaInfo files, so distribution repositories and Flatpak repos look better in software centers. Also, since MetaInfo files can be used to create an “inventory” of software and to install missing stuff as-needed, having more of them will help to build smarter software managers, create smaller OS base installations and introspect what software bundles are made of easily.

I welcome contributions to the MetaInfo Creator! You can find its source code on GitHub. This is my first web application ever, the first time I wrote TypeScript and the first time I used Angular, so I’d bet a veteran developer more familiar with these tools will cringe at what I produced. So, scratch that itch and submit a PR! Also, if you want to create a form for a new component type, please submit a patch as well.

### C developer’s experience notes for Angular, TypeScript, NodeJS

This section is just to ramble a bit about random things I found interesting as a developer who mostly works with C/C++ and Python and stepped into the web-application developer’s world for the first time.

For a project like this, I would usually have gone with my default way of developing something for the web: Creating a Flask-based application in Python. I really love Python and Flask, but of course using them would have meant that all processing would have had to be done on the server. One the one hand I could have used libappstream that way to create the XML, format it and validate it, but on the other hand I would have had to host the Python app on my own server, find a place at Purism/Debian/GNOME/KDE or get it housed at Freedesktop somehow (which would have taken a while to arrange) – and I really wanted to have a permanent location for this application immediately. Additionally, I didn’t want people to send the details of new unpublished software to my server.

## RMLVO

But when it comes to actual layout selection we like our users enough that we don't make them handle KcCGST but rather provide them with RMLVO instead - "rules, models, layouts, variants, options". You select layout "us" and something converts this into the right components to actually load. Run setxkbmap -layout us -print to see this happening.

"layouts" is what you'd usually associate with a country (except politics is still a thing, so more weirdness here) and "variants" are variations of those. Layout "us" gives you QWERTY and "fr" gives you AZERTY but the "us(dvorak)" variant gives you whatever heresy dvorak applies to those physical keys. And of course, things don't stop there - options are tack-on thingies that do stuff. Like remapping caps lock to compose so you're less capable of shouting at me. Come to think of it, it should really be enabled by default for that reason. You can combine multiple options largely at-will. "models" are largely obsolete (except where they aren't) thanks to the Linux kernel evdev interface which makes all keyboard look the same. But they used to be a thing and maybe one day they'll make a comeback like bell bottom jeans. Disliked by everyone but some weirdos insist on using them.

## Rules

Finally, we have rules and thus come to the core of the matter of this post. Rules are magic files that tell the various tools how to go from RMLVO to KcCGST. It's a weird format but it's quite understandable, just open /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev and have a looksie. It'll make you the popular kid at the next frat party.

Many many moons ago before the Y2K bug was even in its larvae stage, the idea was that you could configure all of those because every UNIX tool had to be more flexible than your yoga teacher. I'm unsure to what extent this was actually ever the case but around 2007-ish the old keyboard driver got deprecated and the evdev driver made it's grand entrance. And one side-effect of that was that things broke. evdev uses different keycodes, so all those users that copy-pasted unnecessary XKB configuration into their xorg.conf now had broken keys because they were applying the wrong rules. After whacking enough moles that we got in trouble with the RSPCA we started hardcoding the "evdev" ruleset everywhere. The xorg.conf option "XKBRules" became a noop and thus stopped breaking users' setups.

Except that it also stopped users from deploying their own rules files - something that probably didn't really matter anyway. This had some unintended side-effects though. First, to have a working custom XKB layout you basically had to get it merged upstream. Yes, you could edit the files locally but they'd just be overwritten next time you update the packages. Second, getting rid of hardcoded things is hard so we're stuck with the evdev ruleset for the forseeable future. This was the situation until, well, now.

## User-specific rules and layouts

The new libxkbcommon release changes two things: it prepends $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/xkb/ to the lookup path for XKB rules (and other files). So any file in that path will be picked before the system paths. This makes it possible to have KcCGST files in your home directory and actually use them. This was somewhat possible before by passing the right flags to the various tools but now it's on by default - at least where libxkbcommon is used (Wayland). Secondly, rules files now support an include statement. This means you can set your own rules and include system rules. Because everything is hardcoded to evdev this effectively means your new rule file will be$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/xkb/rules/evdev and have at least one line: ! include %S/rules/evdev. If you do just that, you get the evdev ruleset from the system installation path. And any lines you add before or after that line will be loaded. Have a look at the git commit for the details but the summary is that you'll have a rules file that looks like this:

$cat$XDG_CONFIG_DIR/xkb/rules/evdev! option                =       symbols  custom:foo            =       +custom(foo)  custom:bar            =       +custom(baz)! include %S/evdev
This file will define the option->symbol mappings as above and then include the system-provided evdev rules file, i.e. it'll behave like before with those two added. To get those to do something, you need to have the actual symbols files:
$cat$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/xkb/symbols/custompartial alphanumeric_keysxkb_symbols "foo" {    key <TLDE> {        [      VoidSymbol ]       };};partial alphanumeric_keysxkb_symbols "baz" {    key <AB01> {        [      k, K ]       };};

And voila, you can now use the XKB option "custom:foo" and/or "custom:bar" to remap your tilde or Z key. The rest is left to the reader as an exercise in creativity.

## Remaining work

The libxkbcommon change was only the first part of the full feature. The remaining parts is to have libxkbcommon actually resolve XDG_CONFIG_HOME when running in gnome-shell which doesn't work right now thanks to secure_getenv() always returning NULL. That's an issue with gnome-shell in particular thanks to the rt-scheduler feature, enabled by default on Fedora already.

The second part, and harder, is to make the new options appear in the various graphical configuration tools. xkeyboard-config ships an XML file [3] that lists every possible combination with some human description for it. This XML file is used by the various tools directly but none of those tools support XML's XI:Include statements. So we'd either have to update all those tools to extend the parsing accordingly or, most likely a smarter long-term solution, write a wrapper library that provides a stable API to get at the same info. That way we can update the include paths under the hood without having to update every tool. Of course this requires every tool to update to the new library first, so, well, chicken, egg, usual problem. Anyway, we'll get there eventually.

[1] For example, I suspect a meetup of icelandic dvorak users doesn't qualify for a group discount.
[2] Each key has "levels" with one symbol each and modifiers that switch between those levels. Most keys have two levels - normal and shift. But there's a key type for EIGHT_LEVEL_ALPHABETIC_LEVEL_FIVE_LOCK and you can cry or laugh and both reactions are appropriate
 February 02, 2020

## Prototyping a Vulkan Extension — VK_MESA_present_period

I've been messing with application presentation through the Vulkan API for quite a while now, first starting by exploring how to make head-mounted displays work by creating DRM leases as described in a few blog posts: 1, 2, 3, 4.

Last year, I presented some work towards improving frame timing accuracy at the X developers conference. Part of that was about the Google Display Timing extension.

VK_GOOGLE_display_timing is really two extensions in one:

1. Report historical information about when frames were shown to the user.

2. Allow applications to express when future frames should be shown to the user.

The combination of these two is designed to allow applications to get frames presented to the user at the right time. The biggest barrier to having things work perfectly all of the time is that the GPU has finite rendering performance, and can easily get behind if the application asks it to do more than it can in the time available.

When this happens, the previous frame gets stuck on the screen for extra time, and then the late frame gets displayed. In fact, because the software queues up a pile of stuff, several frames will often get delayed.

Once the application figures out that something bad happened, it can adjust future rendering, but the queued frames are going to get displayed at some point.

The problem is that the application has little control over the cadence of frames once things start going wrong.

Imagine the application is trying to render at 1/2 the native frame rate. Using GOOGLE_display_timing, it sets the display time for each frame by spacing them apart by twice the refresh interval. When a frame misses its target, it will be delayed by one frame. If the subsequent frame is ready in time, it will be displayed just one frame later, instead of two. That means you see two glitches, one for the delayed frame and a second for the "early" frame (not actually early, just early with respect to the delayed frame).

### Specifying Presentation Periods

Maybe, instead of specifying when frames should be displayed, we should specify how long frames should be displayed. That way, when a frame is late, subsequent queued frames will still be displayed at the correct relative time. The application can use the first part of GOOGLE_display_timing to figure out what happened and correct at some later point, being careful to avoid generating another obvious glitch.

I really don't know if this is a better plan, but it seems worth experimenting with, so I decided to write some code and see how hard it was to implement.

### Going In The Wrong Direction

At first, I assumed I'd have to hack up the X server, and maybe the kernel itself to make this work. So I started specifying changes to the X present extension and writing a pile of code in the X server.

Queuing the first presentation to the kernel was easy; with no previous presentation needing to be kept on the screen for a specified period, it just gets sent right along.

For subsequent presentations, I realized that I needed to wait until I learned when the earlier presentations actually happened, which meant waiting for a kernel event. That kernel event immediately generates an X event back to the Vulkan client, telling it when the presentation occurred.

Once I saw that both X and Vulkan were getting the necessary information at about the same time, I realized that I could wait in the Vulkan code rather than in the X server.

### Window-system Independent Implementation

As part of the GOOGLE_display_timing implementation, each window system tells the common code when presentations have happened to record that information for the application. This provides the hook I need to send off pending presentations using that timing information to compute when they should be presented.

Almost. The direct-to-display (DRM) back-end worked great, but the X11 back-end wasn't very prompt about delivering this timing information, preferring to process X events (containing the timing information) only when the application was blocked in vkAcquireNextImageKHR. I hacked in a separate event handling thread so that events would be processed promptly and got things working.

### VK_MESA_present_period

An application uses VK_MESA_present_period by including a VkPresentPeriodMESA structure in the pNext chain in the VkPresentInfoKHR structure passed to the vkQueuePresentKHR call.

typedef struct VkPresentPeriodMESA {
VkStructureType    sType;
const void*        pNext;
uint32_t           swapchainCount;
const int64_t*     pPresentPeriods;
} VkPresentPeriodMESA;


The fields in this structure are:

• sType. Set to VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_PERIOD_MESA
• pNext. Points to the next extension structure in the chain (if any).
• swapchainCount. A copy of the swapchainCount field in the VkPresentInfoKHR structure.
• pPresentPeriods. An array, length swapchainCount, of presentation periods for each image in the call.

Positive presentation periods represent nanoseconds. Negative presentation periods represent frames. A zero value means the extension does not affect the associated presentation. Nanosecond values are rounded to the nearest upcoming frame so that a value of n * refresh_interval is the same as using a value of n frames.

The presentation period causes future images to be delayed at least until the specified interval after this image has been presented. Specifying both a presentation period in a previous frame and using GOOGLE_display_timing is well defined -- the presentation will be delayed until the later of the two times.

### Status and Plans

The prototype (it's a bit haphazard, I'm afraid) code is available in my gitlab mesa repository. It depends on my GOOGLE_display_timing implementation, which has not been merged yet, so you may want to check that out to understand what this patch does.

As far as the API goes, I could easily be convinced to use some better way of switching between frames and nanoseconds, otherwise I think it's in pretty good shape.

I'm looking for feedback on whether this seems like a useful way to improve frame timing in Vulkan. Comments on how the code might be better structured would also be welcome; I'm afraid I open-coded a singly linked list in my haste...

 January 28, 2020

Let's say you have a friend (this wouldn't happen to you, of course, just that friend) who is staring at their system logs and wonder why it is full of messages similar to this:

 libinput error: client bug: timer event5 debounce short: offset negative (-7ms)
And the question is of course - what is going on here and why hasn't this been fixed yet. Now, the libinput documentation explains this already but it's always worthwhile to fire out a blog post into the void in the hope someone reads it.

libinput uses a specific model to communicate with the Wayland compositor (or the X server). There is a single epoll file descriptor and that fd will trigger whenever something happens that's of interest to libinput. When that fd triggers, the compositor is expected to call libinput_dispatch() which is the main "do stuff" function of libinput.

The actual trigger doesn't matter, it could be an event from a device but it could be something else. The caller doesn't have to care. All that matters is that there is code like this:

if (libinput_fd_triggered_in_select)   libinput_dispatch();
And then libinput will do the right thing. Whether you also want events from libinput is almost orthogonal to this.

libinput uses timerfd internally so any timeouts also trigger the epoll fd. Timeouts are scheduled based on the event's time stamp, so if you get an event with timestamp T, a timeout of 180ms will be scheduled for time T + 180ms. So the process looks something like this:

T(0): kernel button eventT(0): libinput_dispatch(): schedule timeout for T(0+180)...T(180): epoll fd triggersT(180): libinput_dispatch(): process timeout...
This works generally fine. Even with some delays we don't generally need to worry about the timeouts and they still trigger as expected. But some of the timeouts are "short", as in 8ms short. And this is where these warnings may trigger.

Let's say your compositor is busy doing some rendering. The epoll fd triggers with a button event but the compositor is too busy to handle it immediately. Instead, it finishes whatever it's doing and only then calls libinput_dispatch():

T(0): kernel button event...T(12): libinput_dispatch(): schedule timeout for T(0+8)libinput error: client bug: timer event5 debounce short: offset negative (-4ms)
libinput will still use the event's timestamp instead of the wall clock time so the scheduled timeout is no longer in the future. And that is when the error message will be printed. This isn't a libinput bug, it's always a bug in the compositor. Especially gnome-shell is still struggling with these instances and while great strives have been made to make it more responsive, it can still happen.

The error message may seem cryptic, but it provides a bunch of useful information: event5 is your event node, "debounce short" is the timer name so we know where we got stuck. And 4ms gives us an indication how much we got delayed.

And for the record: the other end of this issue - delayed libinput_dispatch() after a timeout should have triggered is handled quietly by libinput. For example, if you have a physical event queued and a timeout expiry, we will process the earlier one first to make sure the sequences are handled correctly.

 January 27, 2020

It has been a while since the last AppStream-related post (or any post for that matter) on this blog, but of course development didn’t stand still all this time. Quite the opposite – it was just me writing less about it, which actually is a problem as some of the new features are much less visible. People don’t seem to re-read the specification constantly for some reason . As a consequence, we have pretty good adoption of features I blogged about (like fonts support), but much of the new stuff is still not widely used. Also, I had to make a promise to several people to blog about the new changes more often, and I am definitely planning to do so. So, expect posts about AppStream stuff a bit more often now.

What actually was AppStream again? The AppStream Freedesktop Specification describes two XML metadata formats to describe software components: One for software developers to describe their software, and one for distributors and software repositories to describe (possibly curated) collections of software. The format written by upstream projects is called Metainfo and encompasses any data installed in /usr/share/metainfo/, while the distribution format is just called Collection Metadata. A reference implementation of the format and related features written in C/GLib exists as well as Qt bindings for it, so the data can be easily accessed by projects which need it.

The software metadata contains a unique ID for the respective software so it can be identified across software repositories. For example the VLC Mediaplayer is known with the ID org.videolan.vlc in every software repository, no matter whether it’s the package archives of Debian, Fedora, Ubuntu or a Flatpak repository. The metadata also contains translatable names, summaries, descriptions, release information etc. as well as a type for the software. In general, any information about a software component that is in some form relevant to displaying it in software centers is or can be present in AppStream. The newest revisions of the specification also provide a lot of technical data for systems to make the right choices on behalf of the user, e.g. Fwupd uses AppStream data to describe compatible devices for a certain firmware, or the mediatype information in AppStream metadata can be used to install applications for an unknown filetype easier. Information AppStream does not contain is data the software bundling systems are responsible for. So mechanistic data how to build a software component or how exactly to install it is out of scope.

So, now let’s finally get to the new AppStream features since last time I talked about it – which was almost two years ago, so quite a lot of stuff has accumulated!

### Web Application component type

(Since v0.11.7) A new component type web-application has been introduced to describe web applications. A web application can for example be GMail, YouTube, Twitter, etc. launched by the browser in a special mode with less chrome. Fundamentally though it is a simple web link. Therefore, web apps need a launchable tag of type url to specify an URL used to launch them. Refer to the specification for details. Here is a (shortened) example metainfo file for the Riot Matrix client web app:

<component type="web-application">
<id>im.riot.webapp</id>
<name>Riot.im</name>
<summary>A glossy Matrix collaboration client for the web</summary>
<description>
</description>
<icon type="stock">im.riot.webapp</icon>
<categories>
<category>Network</category>
<category>Chat</category>
<category>VideoConference</category>
</categories>
<url type="homepage">https://riot.im/</url>
<launchable type="url">https://riot.im/app</launchable>
</component>


### Repository component type

(Since v0.12.1) The repository component type describes a repository of downloadable content (usually other software) to be added to the system. Once a component of this type is installed, the user has access to the new content. In case the repository contains proprietary software, this component type pairs well with the agreements section.

This component type can be used to provide easy installation of e.g. trusted Debian or Fedora repositories, but also can be used for other downloadable content. Refer to the specification entry for more information.

### Operating System component type

(Since v0.12.5) It makes sense for the operating system itself to be represented in the AppStream metadata catalog. Information about it can be used by software centers to display information about the current OS release and also to notify about possible system upgrades. It also serves as a component the software center can use to attribute package updates to that do not have AppStream metadata. The operating-system component type was designed for this and you can find more information about it in the specification documentation.

### Icon Theme component type

(Since v0.12.8) While styles, themes, desktop widgets etc. are already covered in AppStream via the addon component type as they are specific to the toolkit and desktop environment, there is one exception: Icon themes are described by a Freedesktop specification and (usually) work independent of the desktop environment. Because of that and on request of desktop environment developers, a new icon-theme component type was introduced to describe icon themes specifically. From the data I see in the wild and in Debian specifically, this component type appears to be very underutilized. So if you are an icon theme developer, consider adding a metainfo file to make the theme show up in software centers! You can find a full description of this component type in the specification.

### Runtime component type

(Since v0.12.10) A runtime is mainly known in the context of Flatpak bundles, but it actually is a more universal concept. A runtime describes a defined collection of software components used to run other applications. To represent runtimes in the software catalog, the new AppStream component type was introduced in the specification, but it has been used by Flatpak for a while already as a nonstandard extension.

### Release types

(Since v0.12.0) Not all software releases are created equal. Some may be for general use, others may be development releases on the way to becoming an actual final release. In order to reflect that, AppStream introduced at type property to the release tag in a releases block, which can be either set to stable or development. Software centers can then decide to hide or show development releases.

### End-of-life date for releases

(Since v0.12.5) Some software releases have an end-of-life date from which onward they will no longer be supported by the developers. This is especially true for Linux distributions which are described in a operating-system component. To define an end-of-life date, a release in AppStream can now have a date_eol property using the same syntax as a date property but defining the date when the release will no longer be supported (refer to the releases tag definition).

### Details URL for releases

(Since v0.12.5) The release descriptions are short, text-only summaries of a release, usually only consisting of a few bullet points. They are intended to give users a fast, quick to read overview of a new release that can be displayed directly in the software updater. But sometimes you want more than that. Maybe you are an application like Blender or Krita and have prepared an extensive website with an in-depth overview, images and videos describing the new release. For these cases, AppStream now permits an url tag in a release tag pointing to a website that contains more information about a particular release.

### Release artifacts

(Since v0.12.6) AppStream limited release descriptions to their version numbers and release notes for a while, without linking the actual released artifacts. This was intentional, as any information how to get or install software should come from the bundling/packaging system that Collection Metadata was generated for.

But the AppStream metadata has outgrown this more narrowly defined purpose and has since been used for a lot more things, like generating HTML download pages for software, making it the canonical source for all the software metadata in some projects. Coming from Richard Hughes awesome Fwupd project was also the need to link to firmware binaries from an AppStream metadata file, as the LVFS/Fwupd use AppStream metadata exclusively to provide metadata for firmware. Therefore, the specification was extended with an artifacts tag for releases, to link to the actual release binaries and tarballs. This replaced the previous makeshift “release location” tag.

Release artifacts always have to link to releases directly, so the releases can be acquired by machines immediately and without human intervention. A release can have a type of source or binary, indicating whether a source tarball or binary artifact is linked. Each binary release can also have an associated platform triplet for Linux systems, an identifier for firmware, or any other identifier for a platform. Furthermore, we permit sha256 and blake2 checksums for the release artifacts, as well as specifying sizes. Take a look at the example below, or read the specification for details.

<releases>
​  <release version="1.2" date="2014-04-12" urgency="high">
​    [...]
​    <artifacts>
​      <artifact type="binary" platform="x86_64-linux-gnu">
​        <location>https://example.com/mytarball.bin.tar.xz</location>
​        <checksum type="blake2">852ed4aff45e1a9437fe4774b8997e4edfd31b7db2e79b8866832c4ba0ac1ebb7ca96cd7f95da92d8299da8b2b96ba480f661c614efd1069cf13a35191a8ebf1</checksum>
​        <size type="installed">42424242</size>
​      </artifact>
​      <artifact type="source">
​        <location>https://example.com/mytarball.tar.xz</location>
​        [...]
​      </artifact>
​    </artifacts>
​  </release>
​</releases>


### Issue listings for releases

(Since v0.12.9) Software releases often fix issues, sometimes security relevant ones that have a CVE ID. AppStream provides a machine-readable way to figure out which components on your system are currently vulnerable to which CVE registered issues. Additionally, a release tag can also just contain references to any normal resolved bugs, via bugtracker URLs. Refer to the specification for details. Example for the issues tag in AppStream Metainfo files:

<issues>
​  <issue url="https://example.com/bugzilla/12345">bz#12345</issue>
​  <issue type="cve">CVE-2019-123456</issue>
​</issues>


### Requires and Recommends relations

(Since v0.12.0) Sometimes software has certain requirements only justified by some systems, and sometimes it might recommend specific things on the system it will run on in order to run at full performance.

I was against adding relations to AppStream for quite a while, as doing so would add a more “functional” dimension to it, impacting how and when software is installed, as opposed to being only descriptive and not essential to be read in order to install software correctly. However, AppStream has pretty much outgrown its initial narrow scope and adding relation information to Metainfo files was a natural step to take. For Fwupd it was an essential step, as Fwupd firmware might have certain hard requirements on the system in order to be installed properly. And AppStream requirements and recommendations go way beyond what regular package dependencies could do in Linux distributions so far.

Requirements and recommendations can be on other software components via their id, on a modalias, specific kernel version, existing firmware version or for making system memory recommendations. See the specification for details on how to use this. Example:

<requires>
<id version="1.0" compare="ge">org.example.MySoftware</id>
​  <kernel version="5.6" compare="ge">Linux</kernel>
​</requires>
<recommends>
​  <memory>2048</memory> <!-- recommend at least 2GiB of memory -->
​</recommends>


This means that AppStream currently supported provides, suggests, recommends and requires relations to refer to other software components or system specifications.

### Agreements

(Since v0.12.1) The new agreement section in AppStream Metainfo files was added to make it easier for software to be compliant to the EU GDPR. It has since been expanded to be used for EULAs as well, which was a request coming (to no surprise) from people having to deal with corporate and proprietary software components. An agreement consists of individual sections with headers and descriptive texts and should – depending on the type – be shown to the user upon installation or first use of a software component. It can also be very useful in case the software component is a firmware or driver (which often is proprietary – and companies really love their legal documents and EULAs).

### Contact URL type

(Since v0.12.4) The contact URL type can be used to simply set a link back to the developer of the software component. This may be an URL to a contact form, their website or even a mailto: link. See the specification for all URL types AppStream supports.

### Videos as software screenshots

(Since v0.12.8) This one was quite long in the making – the feature request for videos as screenshots had been filed in early 2018. I was a bit wary about adding video, as that lets you run into a codec and container hell as well as requiring software centers to support video and potentially requiring the appstream-generator to get into video transcoding, which I really wanted to avoid. Alternatively, we would have had to make AppStream add support for multiple likely proprietary video hosting platforms, which certainly would have been a bad idea on every level. Additionally, I didn’t want to have people add really long introductory videos to their applications.

Ultimately, the problem was solved by simplification and reduction: People can add a video as “screenshot” to their software components, as long as it isn’t the first screenshot in the list. We only permit the vp9 and av1 codecs and the webm and matroska container formats. Developers should expect the audio of their videos to be muted, but if audio is present, the opus codec must be used. Videos will be size-limited, for example Debian imposes a 14MiB limit on video filesize. The appstream-generator will check for all of these requirements and reject a video in case it doesn’t pass one of the checks. This should make implementing videos in software centers easy, and also provide the safety guarantees and flexibility we want.

So far we have not seen many videos used for application screenshots. As always, check the specification for details on videos in AppStream. Example use in a screenshots tag:

​<screenshots>
​  <screenshot type="default">
​    <image type="source" width="1600" height="900">https://example.com/foobar/screenshot-1.png</image>
​  </screenshot>
​  <screenshot>
​    <video codec="av1" width="1600" height="900">https://example.com/foobar/screencast.mkv</video>
​  </screenshot>
​ </screenshots>


### Emphasis and code markup in descriptions

(Since v0.12.8) It has long been requested to have a little bit more expressive markup in descriptions in AppStream, at least more than just lists and paragraphs. That has not happened for a while, as it would be a breaking change to all existing AppStream parsers. Additionally, I didn’t want to let AppStream descriptions become long, general-purpose “how to use this software” documents. They are intended to give a quick overview of the software, and not comprehensive information. However ultimately we decided to add support for at least two more elements to format text: Inline code elements as well as em emphases. There may be more to come, but that’s it for now. This change was made about half a year ago, and people are currently advised to use the new styling tags sparingly, as otherwise their software descriptions may look odd when parsed with older AppStream implementation versions.

### Remove-component merge mode

(Since v0.12.4) This addition is specified for the Collection Metadata only, as it affects curation. Since AppStream metadata is in one big pool for Linux distributions, and distributions like Debian freeze their repositories, it sometimes is required to merge metadata from different sources on the client system instead of generating it in the right format on the server. This can also be used for curation by vendors of software centers. In order to edit preexisting metadata, special merge components are created. These can permit appending data, replacing data etc. in existing components in the metadata pool. The one thing that was missing was a mode that permitted the complete removal of a component. This was added via a special remove-component merge mode. This mode can be used to pull metadata from a software center’s catalog immediately even if the original metadata was frozen in place in a package repository. This can be very useful in case an inappropriate software component is found in the repository of a Linux distribution post-release. Refer to the specification for details.

(Since v0.12.1) The AppStream specification is extensive, but it can not fit every single special usecase. Sometimes requests come up that can’t be generalized easily, and occasionally it is useful to prototype a feature first to see if it is actually used before adding it to the specification properly. For that purpose, the custom tag exists. The tag defines a simple key-value structure that people can use to inject arbitrary metadata into an AppStream metainfo file. The libappstream library will read this tag by default, providing easy access to the underlying data. Thereby, the data can easily be used by custom applications designed to parse it. It is important to note that the appstream-generator tool will by default strip the custom data from files unless it has been whitelisted explicitly. That way, the creator of a metadata collection for a (package) repository has some control over what data ends up in the resulting Collection Metadata file. See the specification for more details on this tag.

(Since v0.12.9) Additionally to JPEG and PNG, WebP images are now permitted for screenshots in Metainfo files. These images will – like every image – be converted to PNG images by the tool generating Collection Metadata for a repository though.

(Since v0.12.10) The specification now contains a new name_variant_suffix tag, which is a translatable string that software lists may append to the name of a component in case there are multiple components with the same name. This is intended to be primarily used for firmware in Fwupd, where firmware may have the same name but actually be slightly different (e.g. region-specific). In these cases, the additional name suffix is shown to make it easier to distinguish the different components in case multiple are present.

(Since v0.12.10) AppStream has an URI format to install applications directly from webpages via the appstream: scheme. This URI scheme now permits alternative IDs for the same component, in case it switched its ID in the past. Take a look at the specification for details about the URI format.

(Since v0.12.10) AppStream now supports version 1.1 of the Open Age Rating Service (OARS), so applications (especially games) can voluntarily age-rate themselves. AppStream does not replace parental guidance here, and all data is purely informational.

## Library & Implementation Changes

Of course, besides changes to the specification, the reference implementation also received a lot of improvements. There are too many to list them all, but a few are noteworthy to mention here.

(Since v0.12.3) By default, libappstream was loading information from local .desktop files into the metadata pool of installed applications. This was done to ensure installed apps were represented in software centers to allow them to be uninstalled. This generated much more pain than it was useful for though, with metadata appearing two to three times in software centers because people didn’t set the X-AppStream-Ignore=true tag in their desktop-entry files. Also, the generated data was pretty bad. So, newer versions of AppStream will only load data of installed software that doesn’t have an equivalent in the repository metadata if it ships a metainfo file. One more good reason to ship a metainfo file!

Software centers can override this default behavior change by setting the AS_POOL_FLAG_READ_DESKTOP_FILES flag for AsPool instances (which many already did anyway).

### LMDB caches and other caching improvements

(Since v0.12.7) One of the biggest pain points in adding new AppStream features was always adjusting the (de)serialization of the new markup: AppStream exists as a YAML version for Debian-based distributions for Collection Metadata, an XML version based on the Metainfo format as default, and a GVariant binary serialization for on-disk caching. The latter was used to drastically reduce memory consumption and increase speed of software centers: Instead of loading all languages, only the one we currently needed was loaded. The expensive icon-finding logic, building of the token cache for searches and other operations were performed and the result was saved as a binary cache on-disk, so it was instantly ready when the software center was loaded next.

Adjusting three serialization formats was pretty laborious and a very boring task. And at one point I benchmarked the (de)serialization performance of the different formats and found out the the XML reading/writing was actually massively outperforming that of the GVariant cache. Since the XML parser received much more attention, that was only natural (but there were also other issues with GVariant deserializing large dictionary structures).

Ultimately, I removed the GVariant serialization and replaced it with a memory-mapped XML-based cache that reuses 99.9% of the existing XML serialization code. The cache uses LMDB, a small embeddable key-value store. This makes maintaining AppStream much easier, and we are using the same well-tested codepaths for caching now that we also use for normal XML reading/writing. With this change, AppStream also uses even less memory, as we only keep the software components in memory that the software center currently displays. Everything that isn’t directly needed also isn’t in memory. But if we do need the data, it can be pulled from the memory-mapped store very quickly.

While refactoring the caching code, I also decided to give people using libappstream in their own projects a lot more control over the caching behavior. Previously, libappstream was magically handling the cache behind the back of the application that was using it, guessing which behavior was best for the given usecase. But actually, the application using libappstream knows best how caching should be handled, especially when it creates more than one AsPool instance to hold and search metadata. Therefore, libappstream will still pick the best defaults it can, but give the application that uses it all control it needs, down to where to place a cache file, to permit more efficient and more explicit management of caches.

### Validator improvements

(Since v0.12.8) The AppStream metadata validator, used by running appstreamcli validate <file>, is the tool that each Metainfo file should run through to ensure it is conformant to the AppStream specification and to give some useful hints to improve the metadata quality. It knows four issue severities: Pedantic issues are hidden by default (show them with the --pedantic flag) and affect upcoming features or really “nice to have” things that are completely nonessential. Info issues are not directly a problem, but are hints to improve the metadata and get better overall data. Things the specification recommends but doesn’t mandate also fall into this category. Warnings will result in degraded metadata but don’t make the file invalid in its entirety. Yet, they are severe enough that we fail the validation. Things like that are for example a vanishing screenshot from an URL: Most of the data is still valid, but the result may not look as intended. Invalid email addresses, invalid tag properties etc. fall into that category as well: They will all reduce the amount of metadata systems have available. So the metadata should definitely be warning-free in order to be valid. And finally errors are outright violation of the specification that may likely result in the data being ignored in its entirety or large chunks of it being invalid. Malformed XML or invalid SPDX license expressions would fall into that group.

Previously, the validator would always show very long explanations for all the issues it found, giving detailed information on an issue. While this was nice if there were few issues, it produces very noisy output and makes it harder to quickly spot the actual error. So, the whole validator output was changed to be based on issue tags, a concept that is also known from other lint tools such as Debian’s Lintian: Each error has its own tag string, identifying it. By default, we only show the tag string, line of the issue, severity and component name it affects as well a short repeat of an invalid value (in case that’s applicable to the issue). If people do want to know detailed information, they can get it by passing --explain to the validation command. This solution has many advantages:

• It makes the output concise and easy to read by humans and is mostly already self-explanatory
• Machines can parse the tags easily and identify which issue was emitted, which is very helpful for AppStream’s own testsuite but also for any tool wanting to parse the output
• We can now have translators translate the explanatory texts

Initially, I didn’t want to have the validator return translated output, as that may be less helpful and harder to search the web for. But now, with the untranslated issue tags and much longer and better explanatory texts, it makes sense to trust the translators to translate the technical explanations well.

Of course, this change broke any tool that was parsing the old output. I had an old request by people to have appstreamcli return machine-readable validator output, so they could integrate it better with preexisting CI pipelines and issue reporting software. Therefore, the tool can now return structured, machine-readable output in the YAML format if you pass --format=yaml to it. That output is guaranteed to be stable and can be parsed by any CI machinery that a project already has running. If needed, other output formats could be added in future, but for now YAML is the only one and people generally seem to be happy with it.

### Create desktop-entry files from Metainfo

(Since v0.12.9) As you may have noticed, an AppStream Metainfo file contains some information that a desktop-entry file also contains. Yet, the two file formats serve very different purposes: A desktop file is basically launch instructions for an application, with some information about how it is displayed. A Metainfo file is mostly display information and less to none launch instructions. Admittedly though, there is quite a bit of overlap which may make it useful for some projects to simply generate a desktop-entry file from a Metainfo file. This may not work for all projects, most notably ones where multiple desktop-entry files exists for just one AppStream component. But for the simplest and most common of cases, a direct mapping between Metainfo and desktop-entry file, this option is viable.

The appstreamcli tool permits this now, using the appstreamcli make-desktop-file subcommand. It just needs a Metainfo file as first parameter, and a desktop-entry output file as second parameter. If the desktop-entry file already exists, it will be extended with the new data from tbe Metainfo file. For the Exec field in a desktop-entry file, appstreamcli will read the first binary entry in a provides tag, or use an explicitly provided line passed via the --exec parameter.

Please take a look at the appstreamcli(1) manual page for more information on how to use this useful feature.

### Convert NEWS files to Metainfo and vice versa

(Since v0.12.9) Writing the XML for release entries in Metainfo files can sometimes be a bit tedious. To make this easier and to integrate better with existing workflows, two new subcommands for appstreamcli are now available: news-to-metainfo and metainfo-to-news. They permit converting a NEWS textfile to Metainfo XML and vice versa, and can be integrated with an application’s build process. Take a look at AppStream itself on how it uses that feature.

In addition to generating the NEWS output or reading it, there is also a second YAML-based option available. Since YAML is a structured format, more of the features of AppStream release metadata are available in the format, such as marking development releases as such. You can use the --format flag to switch the output (or input) format to YAML.

Please take a look at the appstreamcli(1) manual page for a bit more information on how to use this feature in your project.

### Support for recent SPDX syntax

(Since v0.12.10) This has been a pain point for quite a while: SPDX is a project supported by the Linux Foundation to (mainly) provide a unified syntax to identify licenses for Open Source projects. They did change the license syntax twice in incompatible ways though, and AppStream already implemented a previous versions, so we could not simply jump to the latest version without supporting the old one.

With the latest release of AppStream though, the software should transparently convert between the different version identifiers and also support the most recent SPDX license expressions, including the WITH operator for license exceptions. Please report any issues if you see them!

## Future Plans?

First of all, congratulations for reading this far into the blog post! I hope you liked the new features! In case you skipped here, welcome to one of the most interesting sections of this blog post!

So, what is next for AppStream? The 1.0 release, of course! The project is certainly mature enough to warrant that, and originally I wanted to get the 1.0 release out of the door this February, but it doesn’t look like that date is still realistic. But what does “1.0” actually mean for AppStream? Well, here is a list of the intended changes:

• Removal of almost all deprecated parts of the specification. Some things will remain supported forever though: For example the desktop component type is technically deprecated for desktop-application but is so widely used that we will support it forever. Things like the old application node will certainly go though, and so will the /usr/share/appdata path as metainfo location, the appcategory node that nobody uses anymore and all other legacy cruft. I will be mindful about this though: If a feature still has a lot of users, it will stay supported, potentially forever. I am closely monitoring what is used mainly via the information available via the Debian archive. As a general rule of thumb though: A file for which appstreamcli validate passes today is guaranteed to work and be fine with AppStream 1.0 as well.
• Removal of all deprecated API in libappstream. If your application still uses API that is flagged as deprecated, consider migrating to the supported functions and you should be good to go! There are a few bigger refactorings planned for some of the API around releases and data serialization, but in general I don’t expect this to be hard to port.
• The 1.0 specification will be covered by an extended stability promise. When a feature is deprecated, there will be no risk that it is removed or become unsupported (so the removal of deprecated stuff in the specification should only happen once). What is in the 1.0 specification will quite likely be supported forever.

So, what is holding up the 1.0 release besides the API cleanup work? Well, there are a few more points I want to resolve before releasing the 1.0 release:

• Resolve hosting release information at a remote location, not in the Metainfo file (#240): This will be a disruptive change that will need API adjustments in libappstream for sure, and certainly will – if it happens – need the 1.0 release. Fetching release data from remote locations as opposed to having it installed with software makes a lot of sense, and I either want to have this implemented and specified properly for the 1.0 release, or have it explicitly dismissed.
• Mobile friendliness / controls metadata (#192 & #55): We need some way to identify applications as “works well on mobile”. I also work for a company called Purism which happens to make a Linux-based smartphone, so this is obviously important for us. But it also is very relevant for users and other Linux mobile projects. The main issue here is to define what “mobile” actually means and what information makes sense to have in the Metainfo file to be future-proof. At the moment, I think we should definitely have data on supported input controls for a GUI application (touch vs mouse), but for this the discussion is still not done.
• Resolving addon component type complexity (lots of issue reports): At the moment, an addon component can be created to extend an existing application by \$whatever thing This can be a plugin, a theme, a wallpaper, extra content, etc. This is all running in the addon supergroup of components. This makes it difficult for applications and software centers to occasionally group addons into useful groups – a plugin is functionally very different from a theme. Therefore I intend to possibly allow components to name “addon classes” they support and that addons can sort themselves into, allowing easy grouping and sorting of addons. This would of course add extra complexity. So this feature will either go into the 1.0 release, or be rejected.
• Zero pending feature requests for the specification: Any remaining open feature request for the specification itself in AppStream’s issue tracker should either be accepted & implemented, or explicitly deferred or rejected.

I am not sure yet when the todo list will be completed, but I am certain that the 1.0 release of AppStream will happen this year, most likely before summer. Any input, especially from users of the format, is highly appreciated.

Thanks a lot to everyone who contributed or is contributing to the AppStream implementation or specification, you are great! Also, thanks to you, the reader, for using AppStream in your project . I definitely will give a bit more frequent and certainly shorter updates on the project’s progress from now on. Enjoy your rich software metadata, firmware updates and screenshot videos meanwhile!

 January 21, 2020

## Linux.conf.au 2020

I just got back from linux.conf.au 2020 on Saturday and am still adjusting to being home again. I had the opportunity to give three presentations during the conference and wanted to provide links to the slides and videos.

### Picolibc

My first presentation was part of the Open ISA miniconf on Monday. I summarized the work I've been doing on a fork of Newlib called Picolibc which targets 32- and 64- bit embedded processors.

### Snek

Wednesday morning, I presented on my snek language, which is a small Python designed for introducing programming in an embedded environment. I've been using this for the last year or more in a middle-school environment (grades 5-7) as a part of a LEGO robotics class.

### X History and Politics

Bradley Kuhn has been encouraging me to talk about the early politics of X and how that has shaped my views on the benefits of copyleft licenses in building strong communities, especially in driving corporate cooperation and collaboration. I would have loved to also give this talk as a part of the Copyleft Conference being held in Brussels after FOSDEM, but I won't be at that event. This talk spans the early years of X, covering events up through 1992 or so.

 January 17, 2020
A while ago as a spin-off of my project to improve support for Logitech wireless keyboards and mice I have also done some work on improving support for (Gaming) keyboards with a builtin LCD panel.

Specifically if you have a Logitech MX5000, G15, G15 v2 or G510 and you want the LCD panel to show something somewhat useful then on Fedora 31 you can now install the lcdproc package and it will automatically recognize the keyboard and show "top" like information on it. No need to manually write an LCDd.conf or anything, this works fully plug and play:

sudo dnf install lcdproc

If you have a MX5000 and you do not want the LCD panel to show "top" like info, you may still want to install the mx5000tools package, this will automatically send the system time to the keyboard, after which it will display the time.

Once the 5.5 kernel becomes available as an update for Fedora you will also be able to use the keys surrounding the LCD panel to control the lcdproc menu-s on the LCD panel. The 5.5 kernel will also export key backlight brightness control through the standardized /sys/class/leds API, so that you can control it from e.g. the GNOME control-center's power-settings and you get a nice OSD when toggling the brightnesslevel using the key on the keyboard.

The 5.5 kernel will also make the "G" keys send standard input-events (evdev events), once userspace support for the new key-codes these send has landed, this will allow e.g. binding them to actions in GNOME control-center's keyboard-settings. But only under Wayland as the new keycodes are > 255 and X11 does not support this.

So continuing with the news, here is a fairly recent one: as the tile states, I am happy to announce that the Raspberry Pi 4 is now an OpenGL ES 3.1 conformant product!. This means that the Mesa V3D driver has successfully passed a whole lot of tests designed to validate the OpenGL ES 3.1 feature set, which should be a good sign of driver quality and correctness.

It should be noted that the Raspberry Pi 4 shipped with a V3D driver exposing OpenGL ES 3.0, so this also means that on top of all the bugfixes that we implemented for conformance, the driver has also gained new functionality! Particularly, we merged Eric’s previous work to enable Compute Shaders.

All this work has been in Mesa master since December (I believe there is only one fix missing waiting for us to address review feedback), and will hopefully make it to Raspberry Pi 4 users soon.

I actually landed this in Mesa back in December but never got to announce it anywhere. The implementation passes all the tests available in the Khronos Conformance Tests Suite (CTS). If you give this a try and find any bugs, please report them here with the V3D tag.

This is also the first large feature I land in V3D! Hopefully there will be more coming in the future.

Yeah… this blog post is well overdue, but better late than never! So yes, I am currently working on progressing the Raspberry Pi 4 Mesa driver stack, together with my Igalian colleagues Piñeiro and Chema, continuing the fantastic work started by Eric Anholt on the Mesa V3D driver.

The Raspberry Pi 4 sports a Video Core VI GPU that is capable of OpenGL ES 3.2, so it is a big update from the Raspberry Pi 3, which could only do OpenGL ES 2.0. Another big change with the Raspberry Pi 4 is that the Mesa v3d driver is the driver used by default with Raspbian. Because both GPUs are quite different, Eric had to write an all new driver for the Raspberry Pi 4, and that is why there are two drivers in Mesa: the VC4 driver is for the Raspberry Pi 3, while the V3D driver targets the Raspberry Pi 4.

As for what we have been working on exactly, I wrote a long post on the Raspberry Pi blog some months ago with a lot of the details, but for those looking for the quick summary:

• Significant Transform Feedback fixes and improvements.
• Implemented OpenGL Logic Operations.
• A bunch of bugfixes for Piglit test failures.
• Set up a Continuous Integration system to identify regressions.
• Rebased and merge Eric’s work on Compute Shaders.
• Many bug fixes targeting the Khronos OpenGL ES Conformance Test Suite (CTS).

So that’s it for the late news. I hope to do a better job keeping this blog updated with the news this year, and to start with that I will be writing a couple of additional posts to highlight a few significant development milestones we achieved recently, so stay tuned for more!

 January 14, 2020

## Thanks

I would like to thank the wonderful organizers of Linux Conf Au for hosting the event. This was my first LCA, and I think it may be the best Linux conference out of all of them.

I would also like to thank the organizers for paying for my flights, without it I would not have been able to give this talk.

 January 08, 2020

Hello again!

I’m moving. I mean, I’m moving to another subsystem. As a new step in my journey to develop Linux development skills, I will start contributing to DRM. To start this process, I asked Siqueira for advice about the first steps. We are now geographically distant, me in Portugal and he in Canada, so sometimes it is not very simple to match time to stablish some conversation since we are five hours apart and he is working full-time.

Since the USP time, Siqueira is always a guy willing to learn, teach and also pass on knowledge. This knowledge transfer works even unilaterally since I don’t have much skills to contribute more. But if I become technically good at developing for the kernel, maybe in the future I can bounce ideas off him. :)

Well, he told me that the first step is setting up my environment to start contributing. Yes, I know… setting up the environment to start work and checking that your current environment is working well is clearly the first step. As I already sent some contributions to IIO, I already had some things ready:

• A virtual machine working well and sharing a folder with the host.
• Knowledge of the commands to compile and install the kernel on the VM. I also had kworkflow working. Kworkflow is a set of scripts that makes life easier for the kernel developer, abstracting several commands that we need to use in day-to-day development activities. It was originally created by Siqueira. Some FLUSP members also have contributed and improved the code.
• neomutt installed and working fine (as well as knowledge on how to format and send a patch using neomutt). You can also use git, as shown here: https://flusp.ime.usp.br/git/2019/02/15/sending-patches-by-email-with-git/

However, as I was going to work with vkms, I also needed some new knowledge:

1. Install a kernel version based on drm-misc: https://anongit.freedesktop.org/git/drm/drm-misc.git
2. Compile the IGT: https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/drm/igt-gpu-tools
3. Install VKMS on the VM
4. Run kms_flip inside the VM and using VKMS

Stage 1 was smooth since it was basically doing what I had already done in IIO, but now using another kernel tree.

## Compiling IGT

First of all, as I use VM to develop, I have to clone the IGT repository (https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/drm/igt-gpu-tools) into the folder shared with my virtual machine. That done, I need to check if all the packages listed in the Dockerfile.build-debian file are installed … So I installed the packages and did the compilation as it is in README.md. I went to the next step (installing VKMS and running the kms_flip test) and .. oops, we have a problem!

My host uses the Debian distro, but my VM uses Arch. It makes no sense to compile IGT on the host since the kernel I am going to test and work will be installed on the VM! I have to run commands to build and test inside my VM with the DRM kernel installed. Therefore, the right way is that my VM has all the necessary packages installed … OK! But … where’s the list of packages for Arch? I only see Fedora and Debian.

Well, I could check, for each necessary package on the list, its name on Arch (and hope that everyone is there). For future works, a shortcut is this packages list:

List of packages:

arch:

gcc flex bison pkg-config libpciaccess kmod procps-ng libunwind
libdwarf zlib xz cairo pixman libudev0-shim gsl alsa-lib xmlrpc-c
json-c curl libxrandr libxv xorgproto python-docutils valgrind peg
meson libdrm libtool make autoconf automake gtk-doc python-docutils
git vim sudo

debian:

flex bison pkg-config x11proto-dri2-dev python-docutils valgrind peg
libpciaccess-dev libkmod-dev libprocps-dev libunwind-dev libdw-dev
zlib1g-dev liblzma-dev libcairo-dev libpixman-1-dev libudev-dev
libgsl-dev libasound2-dev libjson-c-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev
libxrandr-dev libxv-dev meson libdrm-dev qemu-user qemu-user-static
liboping-dev gtk-doc-tools


So I was able to continue on with my VM and Arch. I ran the VM, went into the shared folder, then into the IGT folder and did the compilation and selftests. All right! Now, let’s go to the next step.

## Install VKMS

You need to enable VKMS in the kernel configuration, using nconfig (please). But where is the VKMS there? I always get lost in that configuration file.

1. Run make nconfig
2. Go to Device Drivers> Graphics Support
3. Enable Virtual KMS (EXPERIMENTAL)

Now, compile and install the module and I do it easily with kworkflow (with the kw bi command) !!

Don’t forget to load the vkms module: sudo modprobe vkms And check if vkms appears here: lsmod | grep drm

Finally, let’s test now if everything is really right.

## Run kms_flip test in VM with VKMS

Having the kernel with VKMS enabled, the VM working with the packages and the IGT compiled, it’s time to run the kms_flip tests!

To test, you just need to run

build/tests/kms_flip

To perform a more specific subtest, you need to use the --run-subtest option.

build/tests/kms_flip --run-subtest basic-plain-flip

You will see that the test will start printing several dots on the command line (…….) and little by little the subtests performed will have its result displayed. This takes a while. At first, I even thought I had done something wrong and it would never stop showing dots. Then, with a little more patience, I realized that there was life beyond the dots and I waited for all tests passing.

It can happen that you are not running the kms_flip test specifically on top of the vkms.

When I was reading a blog post by a developer called Haneen (http://haneensa.github.io/2018/07/29/drmdebug/), I saw that she talked about the --force-module feature” that has been added recently by Rodrigo Siqueria to enable the IGT to choose a specific module to run the tests on it “. With this functionality (https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/10512983/) is possible to ensure that we are running kms_flip on vkms “–force-module vkms”. But when I tried to reproduce, the parameter was not recognized.

So, I asked Siqueira about it and he told me that in the upstream implementation this parameter is declared in another way.

sudo IGT_FORCE_DRIVER=vkms ./tests/kms_flip  --run-subtest basic-plain-flip


If you are using QEMU, you can also ensure the use of vkms disabling on .config the option : Device Drivers> Graphics Support > DRM Support for bochs dispi vga interface (qemu stdvga)

Hey, I think I’ve finished these preparation steps! However, for work portability between the VM and the Host, I need to redo this VM setup to use Debian (as my computer is Debian). Ok, good for memorization.

 December 26, 2019

2019 was a year of deepening and maturing my MSc research on FLOSS. It was also a year of introduction to the universe of contributions to the kernel Linux. I had my first achievements as a newcomer to the community. I sent eight patches to the IIO, the first one was a code-style contribution, but in the others, I made some improvements for an IIO driver that was (and still is) in the staging tree. These patches helped me to understand a little of the logic and complexity involved in Linux kernel development.

I believe one of the patches that struck me most was to fix an implementation error in the ad7150 driver (staging: iio: ad7150: fix threshold mode config bit). I know it’s not very complicated, but this patch involved a lot of positive things. First, it was a bug discovered by chance when I was making a readability improvement of the code. I consider it as a consequence of being careful to always look at a driver’s datasheet when making any code modifications. Second, in a way, I became more confident in what I was doing (given the abstraction needed to code for a device you don’t have it physically installed).

Finally, the flow of sending a bug fix is ​​somewhat particular in the Linux universe. This patch was an opportunity to learn more about Linux’s contributions flow.

1. Ideally, you should submit a concise patch, only to fix the bug and without other code changes. I can say that I changed a little more than recommended since, besides the bug, I believe the variable name would induce future errors or even the return of the found bug - since the mistake was an inconsistency in a configuration bit indicated in the Datasheet, working oppositely.
2. Siqueira told me that bug fix usually has priority over other kinds of contributions. He told me to see other bug-fix patches sent to Linux in a way to learn about some specificities in the patch format. With his help, I understood that it is important to make clear in the commit message that this is a bug-fix patch. Also, it is helpful to place a tag “Fixes: "
3. When Jonathan accepted my patch, he sent it to the fixes-togreg branch, unlike the other contributions forwarded to branch x.
4. Interestingly enough, while my patch was merged in other top- trees, I could see different paths that my patch took. Besides being much faster, other kernel versions merged the bug-fix, unlike my other contributions to the same driver.
5. Finally, this patch was at a happy time. I sent it on my birthday and during the Kernel Dev Day event sponsored by my FLOSS contribution group at USP, the FLUSP :)

Shortly after this patch, I had to stop my contributions to write my qualifying exam manuscript. I submitted my research project for qualification in July, but I no longer returned to send patches to IIO.

However, I didn’t stop my Linux development activities out there. I started preparing to contribute to another Linux subsystem, DRM. To this end, I spent the last months of 2019 reading a little more about the subsystem and preparing my development environment. I hope 2020 is a year to dive into Linux and become a skilled kernel developer!

 December 22, 2019

The year is coming to an end, and although it was a year of new experiences in the FLOSS community, I have shared little about this new universe that I am still beginning to know and understand.

I have always worked with free technologies in different contexts. Not only do I use GNU / Linux since my college days, but after having graduated, I worked sometimes using free technologies to create service solutions, sometimes directly developing a free software project. So when I decided to do a master’s degree, nothing more expected than opting for the FLOSS universe for my research. And so, in 2018, I started my master’s degree in Computer Science at the University of São Paulo. Initially, I had a somewhat ambitious idea (it was the feedback I received from my qualifying board) of capturing the diversity of development models which coexisting in the FLOSS universe. But time is short, and other desires have emerged. I focused my research on the Linux kernel project because of its relevance to the FLOSS phenomenon. I also have a personal interest in being capable of contributing to this project (as a good software developer).

In this journey, a FLOSS development group emerged at the university, FLUSP (FLOSS @ USP). This group, currently consolidated, helped me get involved in the Linux kernel community… modest but great learning steps. In particular, I directly thank Rodrigo Siqueira. He not only helped me technically (and with his FLUSP tutorials) but is always available to answer questions, to teach anything, and also remind me the life’s priorities. :) Besides, when he was in São Paulo, he created a scoreboard in our lab at CCSL to keep the whole lab colleagues motivated to contribute to open source projects (no matter what we chose). After he set out on new achievements in Canadian lands, I no longer heard about this scoreboard.

Contributions in a scoreboard may no longer exist, but in the next few posts, I want to talk a little bit about my Linux contribution journey with some patches for the IIO subsystem.

Here we go!

 December 17, 2019
TL;DR

Use GMemoryMonitor in glib 2.63.3 and newer in your applications to lower overall memory usage, and detect low memory conditions.

low-memory-monitor

To start with, let's come back to low-memory-monitor, announced at the end of August.

It's not really a “low memory monitor”. I know, the name is deceiving, but it actually monitors memory pressure stalls, and how hard it is for the kernel to allocate memory when applications need it. The longer it takes to allocate memory, the longer the kernel takes to allocate it, usually because it needs to move memory around to make room for a big allocation, when an application starts up for example, or prepares an in-memory buffer for saving.

It is not a daemon that will kill programs on low memory. It's not a user-space out-of-memory killer, and does not take those policy decisions. It can however be configured to ask the kernel to do that. The kernel doesn't really know what it's doing though, and user-space isn't helping either, so best disable that for now...

As listed in low-memory-monitor's README (and in the announcement post), there were a number of similar projects around, but none that would offer everything we needed, eg.:
• Has a D-Bus interface to propagate low memory conditions
• Requires Linux 5.2's kernel memory pressure stalls information (Android's lowmemorykiller daemon has loads of code to get the same information from the kernel for older versions, and it really is quite a lot of code)
• Written in a compiled language to save on startup/memory usage costs (around 500 lines of C code, as counted by sloccount)
• Built-in policy, based upon values used in Android and Endless OS
GMemoryMonitor

Next up, in our effort to limit memory usage, we'll need some help from applications. That's where GMemoryMonitor comes in. It's simple enough, listen to the low-memory-warning signal and free some image thumbnails, index caches, or dump some data to disk, when you receive a signal.

The signal also gives you a “warning level”, with 255 being when low-memory-monitor would trigger the kernel's OOM killer, and lower values different levels of “try to be a good citizen”.

The more astute amongst you will have noticed that low-memory-monitor runs as root, on the system bus, and wonder how those new fangled (5 years old today!) sandboxed applications would receive those signals. Fear not! Support for a portal version of GMemoryMonitor landed in xdg-desktop-portal on the same day as in glib. Everything tied together with installed tests that use the real xdg-desktop-portal to test the portal and unsandboxed versions.

By using memory pressure stall information, we receive information about the state of the kernel before getting into swapping that'd cause the machine to become unusable. This also means that, as our threshold for keeping everything ticking is low, if we were to kill high memory consumers, we'd get a butter smooth desktop, but, based on my personal experience, your browser and your mail client would take it in turns disappearing from your desktop in a way that you wouldn't even notice.

We'll definitely need to think about our next step in application state management, and changing our running applications paradigm.

Distributions should definitely disable the OOM killer for now, and possibly try their hands at upstream some systemd OOMPolicy and OOMScoreAdjust options for system daemons.

Conclusion

Creating low-memory-monitor was easy enough, getting everything else in place was decidedly more complicated. In addition to requiring changes to glib, xdg-desktop-portal and python-dbusmock, it also required a lot of work on the glib CI to save me from having to write integration tests in C that would have required a lot of scaffolding. So thanks to all involved in particular Philip Withnall for his patience reviewing my changes.
 December 13, 2019
If you remember, back in 2016, I did the work to get a “Launch on Discrete GPU” menu item added to application in gnome-shell.

This cycle I worked on adding support for the NVIDIA proprietary driver, so that the menu item shows up, and the right environment variables are used to launch applications on that device.

Tested with another unsupported device...

Behind the scenes

There were a number of problems with the old detection code in switcheroo-control:
- it required the graphics card to use vga_switcheroo in the kernel, which the NVIDIA driver didn't do
- it could support more than 2 GPUs
- and it didn't really actually know which GPU was going to be the “main” one

And, on top of all that, gnome-shell expected the Mesa OpenGL stack to be used, so it only knew the right environment variables to do that, and only for one secondary GPU.

So we've extended switcheroo-control and its API to do all this.

(As a side note, commenters asked me about the KDE support, and how it would integrate, and it turns out that KDE's code just checks for the presence of a file in /sys, which is only present when vga_switcheroo is used. So I would encourage KDE to adopt the switcheroo-control D-Bus API for this)

Closing

All this will be available in Fedora 32, using GNOME 3.36 and switcheroo-control 2.0. We might backport this to Fedora 31 after it's been tested, and if there is enough interest.
 December 10, 2019

Unlike the tradition of my past few talks at Linux Plumbers or Kernel conferences, this time around in Lisboa I did not start out with a rant proposing to change everything. Instead I celebrated roughly 10 years of upstream graphics progress and finally achieving paradise. But that was all just prelude to a few bait-and-switches later fulfill expectations on what’s broken this time around in upstream, totally, and what needs to be fixed and changed, maybe.

The LPC video recording is now released, slides are uploaded. If neither of that is to your taste, read below the break for the written summary.

## Mission Accomplished

10 or so years ago upstream graphics was essentially a proof of concept for the promised to come. Kernel display modeset just landed, finally bringing a somewhat modern display driver userspace API to linux. And GEM, the graphics execution manager landed, bringing proper GPU memory management and multi client rendering. Realistically a lot needed to be done still, from rendering drivers for all the various SoC, to an atomic display API that can expose all the features, not just what was needed to light up a linux desktop back in the days. And lots of work to improve the codebase and make it much easier and quicker to write drivers.

There’s obviously still a lot to do, but I think we’ve achieved that - for full details, check out my ELCE talk about everything great for upstream graphics.

Now despite all this justified celebrating, there is one sticking point still:

## NVIDIA

The trouble with team green from an open source perspective - for them it’s a great boon - is that they own the GPU software stack in two crucial ways:

• NVIDIA defines how desktop GL works. Not so relevant anymore, and at least the core profile is a solid spec and has fully open source test suite from Khronos by now. But the compatibility profile, which didn’t throw out all the legacy features from the GL1.x days in the 90s, does not have any of the interactions with all the new features specced out and covered with tests - NVIDIA’s binary driver is that standard, and that since roughly 20 years.

• More relevant today is CUDA, not quite as long as desktop GL, but for a market that’s growing at a rather brisk pace. CUDA is the undisputed king of the general purpose GPU compute hill. Anything and everything that matters runs on top of it, often exclusively.

Together these create a huge software moat around the high margin hardware business. All an open stack would achieve is filling in that moat and inviting competition to eat the nice surplus. In other words, stupid to even attempt, vendor lock-in just pays too well.

Now of course the reverse engineered nouveau driver still exists. But if you have to pay for reverse engineering already, then you might as well go with someone else’s hardware, since you’re not going to get any of the CUDA/GL goodies.

And the business case for open source drivers indeed exists so much that even paying for reverse engineering a full stack is no problem. The result is a vibrant community of hardware vendors, customers, distros and consulting shops who pay the bills for all the open driver work that’s being done. And in userspace even “upstream first” works - releases happen quickly and often enough, with sufficiently smooth merge process that having a vendor tree is simply not needed. Plus customer’s willingness to upgrade if necessary, because it’s usually a well-contained component to enable new hardware support.

In short without a solid business case behind open graphics drivers, they’re just not going to happen, viz. NVIDIA.

## Not Shipping Upstream

Unfortunately the business case for “upstream first” on the kernel side is completely broken. Not for open source, and not for any fundamental reasons, but simply because the kernel moves too slowly, is too big, drivers aren’t well contained enough and therefore customer will not or even can not upgrade. For some hardware upstreaming early enough is possible, but graphics simply moves too fast: By the time the upstreamed driver is actually in shipping distros, it’s already one hardware generation behind. And missing almost a year of tuning and performance improvements. Worse it’s not just new hardware, but also GL and Vulkan versions that won’t work on older kernels due to missing features, fragementing the ecosystem further.

This is entirely unlike the userspace side, where refactoring and code sharing in a cross-vendor shared upstream project actually pays off. Even in the short term.

There’s a lot of approaches trying to paper over this rift with the linux kernel:

• Stable kernel ABI for driver modules, so that you can upgrade the core kernel and drivers independently. Google Android is very much aiming this solution at their huge vendor tree problem. Traditionally enterprise distros do the same. This works, safe that stable kernel-internal ABI is not a notion that’s very popular with kernel maintainers …

• If you go with an “upstream first” approach to shipping graphics drivers you first need to polish your driver, refactor out common components, and push it to upstream. Only to then pay a second team to re-add all the crap so you can ship your driver on all the old kernels, where all the helpers and new common code don’t exist.

• Pay your distro or OS vendor to just backport the new helpers before they even have landed in an upstream release. Which means instead of a backporting team for the driver on your payroll you now pay for backporting the entire subsystem - which in many cases is cheaper, but an even harder sell to beancounters. And sometimes not possible because other driver teams from competitors might not be on board and insist on not breaking the stable driver ABI for a given distro release kernel.

Also, there just isn’t a single LTS kernel. Even upstream has multiple, plus every distro has their own flavour, plus customers love to grow their own variety trees too. Often they’re not even coordinated on the same upstream release. Cheapest way to support this entire madness is to completely ignore upstream and just write your own subsystem. Or at least not use any of the helper libraries provided by kernel subsystems, completely defeating the supposed benefit of upstreaming code.

No matter the strategy, they all boil down to paying twice - if you want to upstream your code. And there’s no added return for the doubled bill. In conclusion, upstream first needs a business case, like the open source graphics stack in general. And that business case is very much real, except for upstreaming, it’s only real in userspace.

In the kernel, “upstream first” is a sham, at least for graphics drivers.

Thanks to Alex Deucher for reading and commenting on drafts of this text.

 December 03, 2019

At ELC Europe in Lyon I held a nice little presentation about the state of upstream graphics drivers, and how absolutely awesome it all is. Of course with a big focus on SoC and embedded drivers. Slides and the video recording

Key takeaways for the busy:

• The upstream DRM graphics subsystem really scales down to tiny drivers now, with the smallest driver coming in at just around 250 lines (including comments and whitespace), 10’000x less than the biggest!

• Batteries all included - there’s modular helpers for everything. As a rule of thumb even minimal legacy fbdev drivers ported to DRM shrink by a factor of 2-4 thanks to these helpers taking care of anything that’s remotely standardized in displays and GPUs.

• For shipping userspace drivers go with a dual-stack: Open source GL and Vulkan drivers for those who want that, and for getting the kernel driver merged into upstream. Closed source for everyone else, running on the same userspace API and kernel driver.

• And for customer support backport the entire subsystem, try to avoid backporting an individual driver.

In other words, world domination is assured and progressing according to plan.

 November 27, 2019
I got contacted by a user with a HP X2 10 p018wm 2-in-1 about the device waking up 10-60 seconds after suspend. I have access to a HP X2 10 p002nd myself which in essence is the same HW and I managed to reproduce the problem there. This is when the fun started:

1. There were a whole bunch of ACPI related errors in dmesg. It turns out that these affect almost all HP laptop models and we have a multiple bugs open for this. Debugging these pointed to the hp-wmi driver. I wrote 2 patches fixes 2 different kind of errors and submitted these upstream. Unfortunately this does not help with the suspend/resume issue, but it does fix all those errors people have been complaining about :)

2. I noticed some weird messages in dmesg with look like a PCI bus re-enumeration is started during suspend when suspending by closing the lid and then the re-enumeration continues after resume. This turns out to be triggered by this piece of buggy AML code which
is used for monitor hotplug notification on gfx state changes (the i915 driver ACPI opregion also tracks the lid state for some reason):

Method (GNOT, 2, NotSerialized)
{
...
CEVT = Arg0
CSTS = 0x03
If (((CHPD == Zero) && (Arg1 == Zero)))
{
If (((OSYS > 0x07D0) || (OSYS < 0x07D6)))
{
Notify (PCI0, Arg1)
}
Else
{
Notify (GFX0, Arg1)
}
}
...
}

Notice how "If (((OSYS > 0x07D0) || (OSYS < 0x07D6)))" is always true, the condition is broken the "||" clearly should have been a "&&" this is causing the code to send a hotplug notify to the PCI root instead of to the gfx card, triggering a re-enumeration. Doing a grep for this on my personal DSDT collection shows that 55 of the 93 DSDTs in my collection have this issue!

Luckily this can be easily fixed by setting CHPD to 1 in the i915 driver, which is something which we should do anyways according to the
opregion documentation. So I wrote a patch doing this and submitted it upstream. Unfortunately this also does not help with the suspend/resume issue.

3. So the actual spurious wakeups are caused by HP using an external embedded controller (EC) on the "legacy-free" platform which they use for these laptops. Since these are not designed to use an external EC they lack the standard interface for this, so HP has hooked the EC up over I2C and using an ACPI GPIO event handler as EC interrupt.

These devices use suspend2idle (s2idle) instead of good old firmware handled S3, so the EC stays active during suspend. It does some housekeeping work which involves a round-trip through the AML code every minute. Normally EC wakeups are ignored durin s2idle by some special handling in the kernel, but this is only done for ECs using the standardized ACPI EC interface, not for this bolted on the
side model. I've started a discussion on maybe extending our ACPI event handling to deal with this special case.

For now as a workaround I ended up writing 2 more patches to allow blacklisting wakeup by ACPI GPIO event handlers on select models. This breaks wakeup by opening the LID, the user needs to wake the laptop with the powerbutton. But at least the laptop will stay suspended now.
There have been questions about the Fedora 30 Flicker Free Boot Change in various places, here is a FAQ which hopefully answers most questions:

#### 1) I get a black screen for a couple of seconds during boot?

1.1) If you have an AMD or Nvidia GPU driving your screen, then this is normal. The graphics drivers for AMD and Nvidia GPUs reset the hardware when loading, this will cause the display to temporarily go black. There is nothing which can be done about this.

1b) If you have a somewhat older Intel GPU (your CPU is pre Skylake) then the i915 driver's support to skip the mode-reset is disabled by default (for now) to fix this add "i915.fastboot=1" to your kernel commandline. For more info on modifying the kernel cmdline, see question 7.

1c) Do "ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars" if you get a "No such file or directory" error then your system is booting in classic BIOS mode instead of UEFI mode, to fix this you need to re-install and boot the livecd/installer in UEFI mode when installing. Alternatively you can try to convert your existing install, note this is quite tricky, make backups first!

1d) Your system may be using the classic VGA BIOS during boot despite running in UEFI mode. Often you can select BIOS mode compatility in your BIOS settings aka the CSM setting. If you can select this on a per component level, set the VIDEO/VGA option to "UEFI only" or "UEFI first", alternatively you can try completely disabling the CSM mode. On some systems you can disable the classic VGA BIOS by disabling / unselecting the "Legacy Option ROMs" option.

#### 2) The vendor-logo/firmware-splash looks squashed or has the wrong size?

Your system may be using the classic VGA BIOS during boot despite running in UEFI mode, see answer 1d.

#### 3) I get a black background instead of the firmware splash while Fedora is booting?

Do "ls /sys/firmware/acpi/bgrt" if you get a "No such file or directory" error then try answers 1c and 1d . If you do have a /sys/firmware/acpi/bgrt directory, but you are still getting the Fedora logo + spinner on a black background instead of on top of the firmware-splash, please file a bug about this and drop me a mail with a link to the bug.

#### 4) Getting rid of the vendor-logo/firmware-splash being shown while Fedora is booting?

If you don't want the firmware-splash to be used as background during boot, you can switch plymouth to the spinner theme, which is identical to the new bgrt theme, except that it does not use the firmware-splash as background, to do this execute the following command from a terminal: "sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R spinner"

Note that the kernel will restore the vendor-logo early on at boot in case it got damaged by e.g. option ROM messages. If you are switching to the spinner theme you may also want to add "video=efifb:nobgrt" to your kernel commandline. See 7 below for how to edit the kernel commandline.

#### 5) Keeping the firmware-splash as background while unlocking the disk?

If you prefer this, it is possible to keep the firmware-splash as background while the diskcrypt password is shown. To do this do the following:

1. "sudo mkdir /usr/share/plymouth/themes/mybgrt"

2. "sudo cp /usr/share/plymouth/themes/bgrt/bgrt.plymouth /usr/share/plymouth/themes/mybgrt/mybgrt.plymouth"

3. edit /usr/share/plymouth/themes/mybgrt/mybgrt.plymouth, change DialogClearsFirmwareBackground=true to DialogClearsFirmwareBackground=false, change DialogVerticalAlignment=.382 to DialogVerticalAlignment=.6

4. "sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R mybgrt"

Note if you do this the disk-passphrase entry dialog may be partially drawn over the vendor-logo part of the firmware-splash, if this happens then try increasing DialogVerticalAlignment to e.g. 0.7 .

#### 6) Get detailed boot progress instead of the boot-splash ?

To get detailed boot progress info press ESC during boot.

#### 7) Always get detailed boot progress instead of the boot-splash ?

To always get detailed boot progress instead of the boot-splash, remove "rhgb" from your kernel commandline:

Edit /etc/default/grub and remove rhgb from GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX and then if you are booting using UEFI (see 1c) run:
"grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2-efi.cfg"
else (if you are booting using classic BIOS boot) run:
"grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2.cfg".
 November 15, 2019
The Lenovo Thinkpad 8 and also the Asus T100CHI both have an USB3 micro-B connector, but using a standard USB3 OTG (USB 3 micro-B to USB3-A receptacle) cable results in only USB2 devices working. USB3 devices are not recognized.

Searching the internet learns that many people have this problem and that the solution is to find a USB3 micro-A to USB3-A receptacle cable. This sounds like nonsense to me as micro-B really is micro-AB and is supposed to use the ID pin to automatically switch between modes dependent on the used cable.; and this does work for the USB-2 parts of the micro-B connector on the Thinkpad. Yet people do claim success with such cables (with a more square micro-A connector, instead of the trapezoid micro-B connector). The only problem is such cables are not for sale anywhere.

So I guessed that this means is that they have swapped the Rx and Tx superspeed pairs on the USB3 only part of the micro-B connector, and I decided to cut open one of my USB3 micro-A to USB3-A receptacle cables and swap the superspeed pairs. Here is what the cable looks like when it it cut open:

If you are going to make such a cable yourself, to get this picture I first removed the outer plastic isolation (part of it is still there on the right side in this picture). Then I folded away the shield wires till they are all on one side (wires at the top of the picture). After this I removed the metal foil underneath the shield wires.

Having removed the first 2 layers of shielding this reveals 4 wires in the standard USB2 colors: red, black, green and white. and 2 separately shielded cable pairs. On the picture above the separately shielded pairs have been cut, giving us 4 pairs, 2 on each end of cable; and the shielding has been removed from 3 of the 4 pairs, you can still see the shielding on the 4th pair.

A standard USB3 cable uses the following color codes:

• Red: Vbus / 5 volt

• White:  USB 2.0 Data -

• Green: USB 2.0 Data +

• Black: Ground

• Purple: Superspeed RX -

• Orange: Superspeed RX +

• Blue: Superspeed TX -

• Yellow: Superspeed TX -

So to swap RX and TX we need to connect purple to blue / blue to purple and orange to yellow / yellow to orange, resulting in:

Note the wires are just braided together here, not soldered yet. This is a good moment to carefully test the cable. Also note that the superspeed wire pairs must be length matched, so you need to cut and strip all 8 cables at the same length! If everything works you can put some solder on those braided together wires, re-test after soldering, and then cover them with some heat-shrink-tube:

And then cover the entire junction with a bigger heat-shrink-tube:

And you have a superspeed capable cable even though no one will sell you one.

Note that the Thinkpad 8 supports ACA mode so if you get an ACA capable "Y" cable or an ACA charging HUB then you can charge and use the Thinkpad 8 USB port at the same time. Typically ACA "Y" cables or hubs are USB2 only. So the superspeed mod from this blogpost will not help with those. The Asus T100CHI has a separate USB2 micro-B just for charging, so you do not need anything special there to charge + connect an USB device.
 November 10, 2019

It has been a while since my last post, but there is a simple reason for that: on August 5th, I had to move from Brazil to Canada. Why did I move? Thanks to Harry Wentland recommendation, I got an interview for a software engineering position at AMD (Markham), and I got hired to work on the display team. From now on, I suppose that I’ll be around the DRM subsystem for a long time :). Even though I’m now employed by AMD this post reflect my personal thoughts only and should not be construed to represent AMD in any way.

I have a few updates about my work with the community since I have been busy with my relocation and adaptation. However, my main updates came from XDC 2019 [1] and I want to share it here.

## XDC 2019 - Montréal (Concordia University Conference)

This year I had the great luck joining XDC again. However, at this time, I was with Harry Wentland, Nicholas Kazlauskas, and Leo Li (we worked together at AMD). We put effort into learning from other people’s experiences, and we tried to know what the compositor developers wanted to see in our driver. We also used this opportunity to try to explain a little bit more about our hardware features. In particular, we had conversations about Freesync, MST, DKMS, and so forth. Thinking of that, I’ll share my view of the most exciting moments that we had.

### VKMS

As usual, I tried my best to understand what people want to see in VKMS soon or later. For example, from the XDC 2018, I focused on fixing some bugs but mainly in add writeback support cause it could provide a visual output (this work is almost done, see [2]). This year I collected feedback from multiple people (special thanks to Marten, Lyude, Hiler, and Harry), and from these conversations I tend to work in the following tasks:

1. Finish the writeback feature and enable visual output;
3. Add support for “dynamic connectors”, which can enable the MST test.

Additionally, Martin Peres gave a talk that he shared his views for the CI and test. In his presentation, he suggested using VKMS to validate the API, and I have to admit that I’m really excited about this idea. I hope that I can help with this.

## Freesync

The amdgpu drivers support a technology named Freesync [3]. In a few words, this feature allows the dynamic change of the refreshes rate, which can bring benefits for games and for power saving. Harry Wayland talked about that feature and you can see it here:

Video 1: Freesync, Adaptive Sync & VRR

After Harry’s presentation, many people asked interesting questions related to this subject, this situation caught my attention, and for this reason, I added the VRR to my roadmap in the VKMS. Roman Gilg, from KDE, was one of the developers that asked for a protocol extension in Wayland for support Freesync; additionally, compositor developers asked for mechanisms that enable them to know in advance if the experience of a specific panel will be good or not. Finally, there were some discussions about the use of Freesync for power saving and in an application that requires time-sensitive.

## IGT and CI

This year I kept my tradition of asking thousands of questions to Hiler with the goal of learning more about IGT, and as usual, he was extremely kind and gentle with my questions (thanks Hiler). One of the concepts that Hiler explained to me, it is the use of podman (https://podman.io/) for prepare IGT image, for example, after a few minutes of code pair with him I could run IGT on my machine after executing the following commands:

sudo su
podman run --privileged registry.freedesktop.org/drm/igt-gpu-tools/igt:master
podman run --privileged registry.freedesktop.org/drm/igt-gpu-tools/igt:master \
igt_runner -t core_auth
podman run --privileged registry.freedesktop.org/drm/igt-gpu-tools/igt:master \
igt_runner -t core_auth /tmp
podman run --privileged -v /tmp/results:/results \
registry.freedesktop.org/drm/igt-gpu-tools/igt:master igt_runner -t core_auth /results


We also had a chance to discuss CI with Martin Peres, and he explained his work for improving the way that the CI keep track of bugs. In particular, he introduced a fantastic tool named cibuglog, which is responsible for keep tracking of test failures and using this data for building a database. Cibuglog has many helpful filters that enable us to see test problems associated with a specific machine and bugs in the Bugzilla. The huge insights from cibuglog it is the idea of using data for helping with bug tracking. Thanks Martin, for showing us this amazing tool.

I just want to finish this post with brief updates from my work with free software, starting with kw and finish with VKMS.

## Kernel Workflow (kw)

When I started to work with VKMS, I wrote a tool named kworkflow, or simply kw, for helping me with basic tasks related to Kernel development. These days kw reborn to me since I was looking for a way to automate my work with amdgpu; as a result, I implemented the following features:

• Kernel deploy in a target machine (any machine reachable via IP);
• Module deploy;
• Capture .config file from a target machine;

Unfortunately, the code is not ready for merging in the main branch, I’m working on it; I think that in a couple of weeks, I can release a new version with these features. If you want to know a little bit more about kw take a look at https://siqueira.tech/doc/kw/

## VKMS

I was not working in VKMS due to my change of country; however, now I am reworking part of the IGT test related to writeback, and as soon as I finish it, I will try to upstream it again. I hope that I can also have the VKMS writeback merged into the drm-misc-next by the end of this month. Finally, I merged the prime supported implemented by Oleg Vasilev (huge thanks!).

## References

[1] “First discussion in the Shayenne’s patch about the CRC problem”. URL: https://xdc2019.x.org

[2] “Introduces writeback support”. URL: https://patchwork.freedesktop.org/series/61738/

[3] “FreeSync”. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeSync

 November 05, 2019
As mentioned in an earlier blogpost, I have been working on fixing many games showing a small image centered on a black background when they are run fullscreen under Wayland. In that blogpost I was moslty looking at how to solve this for native Wayland games. But for various reasons almost all games still use X11, so instead I've ended up focussing on fixing this for games using Xwayland.

Xwayland now has support for emulating resolution changes requested by an app through the randr or vidmode extensions. If a client makes a resolution change requests this is remembered and if the client then creates a window located at the monitor's origin and sized to exactly that resolution, then Xwayland will ask the compositor to scale it to fill the entire monitor.

For apps which use _NET_WM_FULLLSCREEN (e.g. SDL2, SFML or OGRE based apps) to go fullscreen some help from the compositor is necessary. This is currently implemented in mutter. If you are a developer of another compositor and have questions about this, please drop me an email.

I failed to get this all upstream in time for Fedora 31 final. But now it is all upstream, so 've backported the changes and created an update with the changes. This update is currently in updates-testing, to install this update run the following command:

sudo dnf upgrade --enablerepo=updates-testing --advisory=FEDORA-2019-103a594d07
 October 24, 2019

I recently went to XDC 2019, where I gave yet another talk about Zink. I kinda forgot to write a blog-post about it, so here’s me trying to make up for it… or something like that. I’ll also go into some more recent developments as well.

My presentation was somewhat similar to the talk I did at SIGGRAPH this year, but with a bit more emphasis on the technical aspect, as the XDC audience is more familiar with Mesa internals.

If you’re interested, you can find the slides for the talk here. The talk goes through the motivation and basic approach. I don’t think I need to go through this again, as I’ve already covered that before.

As for the status, Zink currently supports OpenGL 2.1 and OpenGL ES 2.0. And there’s no immediate plans on working on OpenGL 3.0 and OpenGL ES 3.0 until Zink is upstream.

Which gets us to the more interesting bit; that I started working on upstreaming Zink. So let’s talk about that for a bit.

## Upstreaming Zink

So, my current goal is to get Zink upstream in Mesa. The plan outline in my XDC talk is slightly outdated by now, so here I’ll instead say what’s actually happened so far, and what I hope will follow.

Before I could add the driver itself, I decided to send all changes outside of the driver as a set of merge-requests:

The last one is probably the most interesting one, as it moves a lot of fixed-function operations into the state-tracker, so individual drivers won’t have to deal with them. Unless they choose to, of course.

But all of these has already been merged, and there’s just one final merge-request left:

This merge-request adds the driver in its current state. It consists of 163 commits at the time of writing, so it’s not a thing of beauty. But new drivers usually aren’t, so I’m not too worried.

When this is merged, Zink will finally be a “normal” part of Mesa… Well, sort of anyway. I don’t think we’ll enable Zink to be built by default for a while. But that’ll just be a matter of adding zink to the -Dgallium-drivers meson-option.

### Testing on CI

The current branch only adds building of Zink to the CI. There’s no testing being done yet. The reasons for this is two-fold:

1. We need to get a running environment on CI. Rather of bringing up some hardware-enabled test-runner, I intend to try to set up SwiftShader as a software rasterizer instead, as that supports Vulkan 1.1 these days.
2. We need some tests to run. Zink currently only supports OpenGL 2.1, and sadly the conformance test suite doesn’t have any tests for OpenGL versions older than 3.0. Piglit has some, but a full piglit-run takes significantly more time, which makes it tricky for CI. So right now, it seems the OpenGL ES 2.0 conformance tests are our best bet. We’ll of course add more test-suites as we add more features.

So, there’s some work to be done here, but it seems like we should be able to get something working without too much hassle.

## Next steps

After Zink is upstream, it will be maintained similarly to other Mesa drivers. Practically speaking, this means that patches are sent to the upstream repo rather than my fork. It shouldn’t make a huge difference for most users.

The good thing is that if I go away on vacation, or are for some other reason unavailable, other people can still merge patches, so we’d slightly reduce the technical bus-factor.

I’m not stopping developing Zink at all, but I have other things going on in my life that means I might be busy with other things at times. As is the case for everyone! :wink:

In fact, I’m very excited to start working on OpenGL 3.x and 4.x level features; we still have a few patches for some 3.x features in some older branches.

The future is bright! :sunny:

 October 23, 2019
As some of you running Fedora 31 may already have noticed, I have some good news to share. As part of my recent work on plymouth I've implemented a feature request which was first requested in 2012: support for an indicator that capslock is active while entering the disk unlock password for machines using full diskencryption. Besides the capslock indicator I've also added support for an indicator of the configured keyboard layout, since this sometimes also causes confusion:

And here is what it looks like when capslock is pressed:

If you're running Fedora 31 with full diskencryption then you may notice that the above screenshots are slightly different then what you have now. I've pushed an update to Fedora 31 updates-testing today which implements a few small tweaks to the theme after feedback from the design-team on the initial version. For those of you still on Fedora 30, this is coming to Fedora 30 too, it should show up in updates-testing with the next updates push.
 October 22, 2019
First of all, as always my opinions are my own, not those of my employer.

Since I have 2 children I was happy to learn that the Netherlands would be one of the first countries to get Disney+ streaming.

So I subscribed for the testing period, problem all devices in my home run Fedora. I started up Firefox and was greeted with an "Error Code 83", next I tried Chrome, same thing.

So I mailed the Disney helpdesk about this, explaining how Linux works fine with Netflix, AmazonPrime video and even the web-app from my local cable provider. They promised to get back to me in 24 hours, the eventually got back to me in about a week. They wrote: "We are familiar with Error 83. This often happens if you want to play Disney + via the web browser or certain devices. Our IT department working hard to solve this. In the meantime, I want to advise you to watch Disney + via the app on a phone or tablet. If this error code still occurs in a few days, you can check the help center ..." this was on September 23th.

So I thought, ok they are working on this lets give them a few days. It is almost a month later now and nothing has changed. Their so called help-center does not even know about "Error Code 83" even though the internet is full of people experiencing this. Note that this error also happens a lot on other platforms, it is not just Linux.

Someone on tweakers.net has done some digging and this is a Widevine error: "the response is: {"errors":[{"code":"platform-verification-failed","description":"Platform verification status incompatible with security level"}]}". Widevine has 3 security levels and many devices, including desktop Linux and many Android devices only support the lowest security setting (software encryption only). In this case e.g. Netflix will not offer full HD or 4k resolutions, but otherwise everything works fine, which is a balance between DRM and usability which I can accept. Disney+ OTOH seems to have the drm features kranked up to maximum draconian settings and simply will not work on a lot of android devices, nor on Chromebooks, nor on desktop Linux.

So if you care about Linux in any way, please do not subscribe to Disney+, instead send them a message letting them know that you are boycotting them until they get their Linux support in order.
 October 17, 2019

Upcoming in libinput 1.15 is a small feature to support Wacom tablets a tiny bit better. If you look at the higher-end devices in Wacom's range, e.g. the Cintiq 27QHD you'll notice that at the top right of the device are three hardware-buttons with icons. Those buttons are intended to open the config panel, the on-screen display or the virtual keyboard. They've been around for a few years and supported in the kernel for a few releases. But in userspace, they events from those keys were ignored, casted out in the wild before eventually running out of electrons and succumbing to misery. Well, that's all changing now with a new interface being added to libinput to forward those events.

Step back a second and let's look at the tablet interfaces. We have one for tablet tools (styli) and one for tablet pads. In the latter, we have events for rings, strips and buttons. The latter are simply numerically ordered, so button 1 is simply button 1 with no special meaning. Anything more specific needs to be handled by the compositor/client side which is responsible for assigning e.g. keyboard shortcuts to those buttons.

The special keys however are different, they have a specific function indicated by the icon on the key itself. So libinput 1.15 adds a new event type for tablet pad keys. The events look quite similar to the button events but they have a linux/input-event-codes.h specific button code that indicates what they are. So the compositor can start the OSD, or control panel, or whatever directly without any further configuration required.

This interface hasn't been merged yet, it's waiting for the linux kernel 5.4 release which has a few kernel-level fixes for those keys.

For a few years now, libinput has provided button scrolling. Holding a designated button down and moving the device up/down or left/right creates the matching scroll events. We enable this behaviour by default on some devices (e.g. trackpoints) but it's available on mice and some other devices. Users can change the button that triggers it, e.g. assign it to the right button. There are of course a couple of special corner cases to make sure you can still click that button normally but as I said, all this has been available for quite some time now.

New in libinput 1.15 is the button lock feature. The button lock removes the need to hold the button down while scrolling. When the button lock is enabled, a single button click (i.e. press and release) of that button holds that button logically down for scrolling and any subsequent movement by the device is translated to scroll events. A second button click releases that button lock and the device goes back to normal movement. That's basically it, though there are some extra checks to make sure the button can still be used for normal clicking (you will need to double-click for a single logical click now though).

This is primarily an accessibility feature and is likely to find it's way into the GUI tools under the accessibility headers.

 October 16, 2019

A few weeks back, I was at XDC and gave a talk about various current and past input stack developments (well, a subset thereof anyway). One of the slides pointed out libinput's bus factor and I'll use this blog to make this a bit more widely known.

If you don't know what the bus factor is, Wikipedia defines it as:

The "bus factor" is the minimum number of team members that have to suddenly disappear from a project before the project stalls due to lack of knowledgeable or competent personnel.
libinput has a bus factor of 1.

Let's arbitrarily pick the 1.9.0 release (roughly 2 years ago) and look at the numbers: of the ~1200 commits since 1.9.0, just under 990 were done by me. In those 2 years we had 76 contributors in total, but only 24 of which have more than one commit and only 6 contributors have more than 5 commits. The numbers don't really change much even if we go all the way back to 1.0.0 in 2015. These numbers do not include the non-development work: release maintenance for new releases and point releases, reviewing CI failures [1], writing documentation (including the stuff on this blog), testing and bug triage. Right now, this is effectively all done by one person.

This is... less than ideal. At this point libinput is more-or-less the only input stack we have [2] and all major distributions rely on it. It drives mice, touchpads, tablets, keyboards, touchscreens, trackballs, etc. so basically everything except joysticks.

Anyway, I'm largely writing this blog post in the hope that someone gets motivated enough to dive into this. Right now, if you get 50 patches into libinput you get the coveted second-from-the-top spot, with all the fame and fortune that entails (i.e. little to none, but hey, underdogs are big in popular culture). Short of that, any help with building an actual community would be appreciated too.

Either way, lest it be said that no-one saw it coming, let's ring the alarm bells now before it's too late. Ding ding!

[1] Only as of a few days ago can we run the test suite as part of the CI infrastructure, thanks to Benjamin Tissoires. Previously it was run on my laptop and virtually nowhere else.
[2] fyi, xf86-input-evdev: 5 patches in the same timeframe, xf86-input-synaptics: 6 patches (but only 3 actual changes) so let's not pretend those drivers are well-maintained.

 October 07, 2019

GStreamer Conference 2019 in Lyon France

So the GStreamer Conference 2019 is approaching being held in Lyon, France between 31st October and 1st November 2019. This year is special as it marks the GStreamer projects 20th year of existence. I still remember seeing the announcement of GStreamer 0.0.9 which Erik Walthinsen sent to the GNOME announe mailing list. Back then I felt that multimedia support where one of the big gaps around the Linux operating system that needed filling (no, XAnim was nice for its time, but it was not a long term solution :) and GStreamer seemed like the perfect project to fill it. So I joined the GStreamer IRC channel determined to try to help the project succeed however I could. A little over a year later we all met for the first time at GUADEC in Copenhagen, even posing for this exciting team photo.

GStreamer Team at GUADEC Copenhagen in 2001 (we all looked slightly younger and fresher back then.)

Anyway, 20 years later there will be a talk and presentation by GStreamer co-founder Wim Taymans (wearing blue shirt and black pants in picture above) at the GStreamer Conference commemorating 20 years of GStreamer. Detailing taking the project from idealistic spare time effort to the multimedia industry juggernaut it is today.

Of course the conference is not going to be focused on the past, as there is a long line up of great talks talking about modern streaming with DASH, HDR support in GStreamer, latest developments around GStreamer and Rust, Virtual reality, Vulkan and more. Actually on the ‘and more’ topic, Wim Taymans will also do a presentation on PipeWire, the next generation audio and video server, at the GStreamer Conference this year, hopefully demoing some of the great improvements in things like our pro-audio Jack emulation support.
So if you haven’t already, make your way to the GStreamer Conference 2019 website and register for the 10th annual GStreamer Conference!

For those going be aware that there will also be a joint GStreamer fall hackfest and PipeWire hackfest in the two days following the GStreamer Conference. So be sure to sign up for those if interested. They will be co-located with participants flowing freely between the two events.

 September 23, 2019

We are laboring on getting Fedora Workstation 31 out the door next Month, with the beta release being made available last week. So here are some of the highlights of this upcoming release which I and the team hope you will enjoy. Many of these items I already covered in my June blogpost about Fedora Workstation 31, so if you read that one consider this one a status update as there will be some repeats.

Wayland improvements
Fedora has been leading the migration to Wayland since day one and we are not planning to stop. XWayland on demand has been an effort a lot of people contributed to this cycle. The goal is to only need XWayland for legacy X applications, not have it started and running all the time as that is a waste of system resources and also having core functionality still depend on X under Wayland makes the system more fragile. XWayland-on-demand has been a big effort with contributions from a lot of people and companies. One piece of this was the Systemd user session patches that was originally written by Iain Lane from Canonical. They had been lingering for a bit so Benjamin Berg took those patches on for this cycle and helped shepherd them over the finish line and get them merged upstream. This work wasn’t a hard requirement for Wayland-on-demand, but since it makes it a lot easier to do different things under X and Wayland which in turn makes moving towards XWayland-on-demand a little simpler to implement. That work will also allow (in future releases) us to do things like only start services under GNOME that are actually needed for your hardware, so for instance if you don’t have a bluetooth adapter in your computer there is no reason to run the bits of GNOME dealing with bluetooth. So expect further resource savings coming from this work over time.

Carlos Garnacho then spent time going through GNOME Shell removing any lingering X dependencies while Olivier Fourdan worked on cleaning up the control center. This work has mostly landed, but it is hidden behind an experimental flag (gsettings set org.gnome.mutter experimental-features "[...,'autostart-xwayland']") in Fedora 31 as we need to mature it a bit more before its ready for primetime. But we hope and expect to have it running by default in Fedora Workstation 32.

One example of something that was still requiring X that is now gone is the keyboard and mouse accessibility features in GNOME 3, which Olivier Fourdan got re-implemented and improved for this release. So if anyone out there reading this rely on the hover click accessibility feature then that is actually a lot nicer in Fedora Workstation 31. As seen in the screenshot below you now have this nice little pie animation filling up as it prepares to click which is a huge improvement over how it used to work.

Click on hover in action

Another item we feel is an important part of reducing the need for XWayland is having Firefox running natively on Wayland. Martin Stransky and Jan Horak has been working tirelessly on trying to ensure Firefox works well on Wayland and in the Fedora 31 Beta it is running on Wayland by default. However there are a few bugs discovered that Martin and Jan are trying hard to fix atm so we can keep this default for the GA release, but if they miss the deadline we will ship the X backend version in F31 and then move to the Wayland version later on.

In Fedora Workstation 31 Wayland is still disabled by default if you use the Nvidia binary driver. The reason for this is due to lack of acceleration under XWayland, meaning that any application depending on GLX, like a lot of games, will just get software GL rendering with the binary NVidia driver. This isn’t something we can resolv on our own, Nvidia has to do the work since its their closed source driver, but we been discussing it regularly with them and we been told now that they are looking at the work Adam Jackson some time ago which was specifically aimed at helping them bring their X.org driver to XWayland. We don’t have a timeline yet, but it is being actively looked at and hopefully a proper date can be provided soon. I am actually running Fedora Workstation 31 using the NVidia driver myself at the moment on this laptop, and for those interested in helping dogfood this setup, in preparation for hopefully being able to enable Wayland on NVidia in Fedora Workstation 32, it is fairly simple thing to do. Under /usr/lib/udev/rules.d/ you find a file called 61-gdm.rules, just edit that file and comment out (#) the line that reads ‘DRIVER=="nvidia", RUN+="/usr/libexec/gdm-disable-wayland"‘ and you will revert to a standard setup where your standard session is a Wayland session, but with a x.org session available as a fallback. The more people that run this and report issues the better as it helps us make this rock solid before releasing it upon the world.

Atomic kernel modesetting
Jonas Ådahl has been hard at work this cycle on adding support for atomic mode setting. This work is not done, but the first parts of it has landed, but it has major long term advantages for us. I asked Jonas to provide a short description of the work and what it will eventually achieve as I don’t we articulated that anywhere else yet:

There are two ways for a display server to control the configuration and content of monitors – the old classic Kernel Mode Setting (classic KMS), and newer atomic Kernel Mode Setting (atomic KMS). The main difference between these two modes of operations is that with atomic KMS, the display server posts transactions containing configuration KMS that are then processed atomically by the kernel, while when using the classic KMS, the display server posts configurations command by command, where each monitor is configured by posting multiple commands. The benefits with atomic KMS are for example that the display server will up front know whether a configuration is valid (e.g. enough memory bandwidth), or that the display server can configure multiple aspects of the hardware atomically.

During the cycle leading up to Fedora Workstation 31 the foundations for how mutter (the window manager powering GNOME Shell) can make use of the new atomic KMS API was put in place. What was done was to introduce an internal transactional API for configuring monitors. This will eventually allow us to have much more control over how more advanced monitor features are utilized. For example it will be possible to place client windows directly in hardware overlay planes, meaning we can more often completely bypass full frame compositing when only the content of a single window changes. Another example for what this enables us to do is with color management; we will be able to do seamless switching between managing window color profiles using OpenGL and for instance gamma ramps. Yet another example of what this work opens the door for is framebuffer modifiers, which will among other things potentially result in higher performance with very high resolution monitors.
Finally an important aspect of the work done related to the new internal KMS API is that it aims to be thread safe, meaning eventually it will be possible to put KMS processing completely in a separate thread. This means that together with e.g. moving input device processing to its own thread it will be possible to get very short latency between mouse movement and the cursor
being moved on screen.

QtGNOME improvements
Jan Grulich has continued improved the QtGNOME module to make sure Qt apps integrate as well as possible into Fedora Workstation. His latest updates ensures that the theming keeps up to date with latest upstream changes in Adwaita, that we have a fully working dark theme, that accessibility theming work and that it works with Flatpaks. Below is a screenshot showing Okular running allowing you to see how the QtGNOME module affects the look and feel of Qt applications.

Firmware improvements
The LVFS firmware service keeps going from strength to strength. Richard Hughes presented on it during the Open Firmware Conference recently and was approached by a lot of vendors afterwards both thanking him and Red Hat for the effort, but also asking about getting more of their hardware supported. New vendors are coming onboard at rapid pace, for instance Acer joined recently and are planning to support more of their hardware on the LVFS going forward. It is also worth mentioning the GNOME Firmware tool that can now be downloaded from flathub and which works great on Fedora Workstation 31.

OpenH264 Greatly Improved
The much improved version of OpenH264 will be available soon for Fedora users. This new version adds support for the High and Advanced profiles of H264 which is what most videos found online or produced by your camera would be using. This means you can add H264 playback support to your Fedora Workstation without having to search online for 3rd party repositories like you have had to do up to now. We also are trying to ensure this will be usable by Firefox for video playback eventually. This was work we partnered with Endless, Cisco to hire the multimedia experts at Centricular to do, so another great example of cross company collaboration to bring improved functionality to the community.

Fedora Toolbox
Debarshi Ray has been working on many small improvements and better robustness for Fedora Toolbox going into Fedora Workstation 31. Fedora Toolbox for those not aware of it yet, is our tool to make doing development using pet containers simple and convenient, providing ease of use features on top of traditional container tools and integration with GNOME terminal and the GNOME Shell. The version shipping in F31 will be the last shell script based one as once Fedora Workstation 31 is out we will be going all in on rewritting Fedora Toolbox in Go, in preparation for future development and expansion. I strongly recommend trying it out as it will help open your eyes to the possibilities that using pet containers for development gives you. For instance you can easily set up a RHEL based pet container on your Fedora system to do development work that is mean to be deployed on a RHEL system or grab our special AI/ML development container for easy access to TensorFlow and similar tools.

Improved Classic mode
Another notable change in this release is the updates to GNOME Classic mode. GNOME Classic mode is a set of extensions to GNOME 3 that makes it look and behave a lot more like GNOME 2, which still has many fans out there. With this release we collected feedback from a group of Classic mode users and tried to improve the experience further, mostly be removing some remaining GNOME 3’isms that didn’t really fit the GNOME Classic user experience, like the overview and the hot corner. The session manager is now also easily accessible in the bottom corner. The theming also got cleaned up a little to remove the last bit of the ‘black’ GNOME 3 theming. That said I think it is important to remember that this is still GNOME 3 in the end, we are really just showcasing the power of extensions to tweak the user experience in quite fundamental ways here.

Improved GNOME Classic mode

Better support for non-English users
Fedora Workstation is used all over the globe, but we have not been happy about how our support for picking languages other than English has worked so far. The thing is that if you choose one or more languages at install time, things tended to just work fine, but if you wanted to add a new language afterwards it required jumping onto the command line and figuring out how to install the needed langpacks. In Fedora Workstation 31 Sundeep Anand have worked hard to improve this, so if you choose a new language in the GNOME Control center in Fedora Workstation 31, the required langpacks should be installed automatically for you.

Fleet Commander
Fleet Commander 0.14.1 is out just in time for Fedora Workstation 31. Fleet Commander is a tool for doing large scale deployments of Fedora and RHEL workstations, allowing you to set system wide profiles. So for instance if you have a GNOME Shell extension everyone in your organization or a specific team inside your organization should have enabled, you can deploy a profile with Fleet commander ensuring that extension is enabled for those users. Basically any setting within GNOME can be set using this, including network configuration options. There is also support for Firefox and LibreOffice settings in Fleet Commander. The big feature addition of 0.14.1 is that Fleet Commander now can be used with Active Directory, which means that even if your company or university use Active Directory for their user management, you can now deploy Fedora and RHEL profiles without needing FreeIPA. Fleet Commander is pretty much finished at this point, at least as far as any piece of software can ever be finished. Oliver Gutierrez Suarez is working on finishing up some last bits of Firefox support currently, but we don’t have any major Fleet Commander items on his todo list after that, so if you been waiting to test it out there are on new major features you need to wait on anymore, it is all there. If you are doing large scale linux desktop deployments I definitely recommend checking out Fleet commander. You will find that Fleet Commander definitely makes Fedora a great choice for doing large scale Linux desktop deployments.

Pipewire
We are not doing a lot of changes to Pipewire for Fedora Workstation 31. Mostly some bugfixes and minor improvements to the video infrastructure it already provides in Fedora 30 for Flatpaks and web browsers. We are planning major changes for Fedora Workstation 32 though, where we in fact plan to ship Pipewire as a tech preview for both Jack and PulseAudio users. The way it will work is that the system will still default to PulseAudio, but we will provide either a script or a UI option to switch over to Pipewire (and back again). There is also a plan to have a core set of ProAudio applications available as Flatpaks for Fedora Workstation 32 tested and verified to work perfectly with Pipewire, the current apps planned to be included are Ardour, Carla, a2jmidid, Hydrogen, Qtractor and Patroneo, but if there is interested contributors joining the effort we could have even more. Then for Fedora Workstation 33 the idea is to ship with Pipewire as the default audio handler, but with some way for users to switch back to PulseAudio if they have a need. Not unlike how the setup is currently with Wayland and X.org in Fedora. Wim Taymans will also be attending the Sonoj conference in Cologne Germany at the end of October to discuss Pipewire with many members of the Linux ProAudio community and hopefully help prepare them for a future where Fedora Workstation is the perfect home for ProAudio users and developers.

Sysprof
Christian Hergert spent some cycles this round on improving the Sysprof tool as it was becoming clear that to keep improving GNOME Shell and general desktop performance going forward we needing better data and ability to find the bottlenecks. Tools like sysprof often ends up being the unsung heroes of the system, but as we continue improving the overall GNOME performance and resource usage of the next few years the revamped sysprof tool will be a big part of that story.

Much improved Sysprof tool

Silverblue

We realize that Silverblue is a major change in how a Linux distro is ‘supposed’ to work, so we are taking our time with it to ensure we do it right and that we have made sure applications and tools work in a way that functions well on an immutable OS. So if you are interested I do recommend that you grab the Fedora 31 Silverblue image and give it a spin, but we are still working on polishing the experience so don’t expect it to be a seamless experience at this point in time. Of course as things like Flatpaks, Fedora Toolbox and a host of smaller issues get improved upon we do believe this will be such an overall improvement over an ‘old fashioned’ linux distro that you will be asking yourself why the Linux world didn’t do this years ago.

Improved performance
A lot of work has gone into improving the general performance of GNOME 3.34. The GNOME shell team has been very active and is a great example of a large numbers of developers working together from different backgrounds. So this release features a lot of great performance work by Daniel van Vugt from Canonical and by Georges Stavracas from Endless for instance. The Red Hat team has focused on providing patch review and feedback and working on bigger long term changes and enablers, like Christian Hergerts work on Sysprof, Jonas Ådahl work on atomic mode setting and Benjamin Bergs work on systemd-user session support. All in all I think you will find that Fedora Workstation 31 with GNOME 3.34 provides a faster and smoother experience, an experience we will continue to build upon going forward as some of these long term efforts starts paying off.

Performance is better than ever

Summary
So this has been a roundup of some of the core items you should look forward to in Fedora Workstation 31. There are other items coming too in this release, like the Miracast GNOME Network Display application that Benjamin Berg has written, more Fedora Flatpaks available than ever before and more. We also have a lot of interesting items coming up in Fedora Workstation 32 like Bastien Noceras work improving low memory handling. So stay tuned.

 September 22, 2019

At the very beginning of this blog I mentioned that I might not only talk about technical topics but also about political or philosophical ones. Until now I successfully managed to avoid that but over three years later this is the first article about such a topic.

It is though directly related to me being part of the KDE community and my work on KDE software. In the last few weeks I noticed a rise in political activism in KDE what I see critical. The climax was two days ago an official endorsement of the Global Climate Strike on KDE's social media accounts. Why this straw broke the camel's back and how if at all I think KDE can be political, I will expand upon in the following.

## Worse activism

Let us first dive into some current political activism in KDE and why I see it as damaging to the community.

### Grasping at plastic straws

Talking about straws there is a discussion ongoing already since July on the member mailing list of the KDE e.V. (that is the legal body representing the KDE community in official matters) about an environment responsibility policy for KDE.

I would not feel comfortable bringing this discussion in detail to the public without prior consent of the KDE e.V. board or the people involved so please excuse me that I won't expand on it much more. But what I can say is that the current draft still reads like the law book of a cult covering every little aspect of its members' lives.

For example people are supposed to have QR Codes on their business cards so that other people can scan these instead of having to hand over – and by that wasting – a paper card. I am not sure if the battery power used for scanning a QR code with a smart phone offsets the energy involved to produce a single business card but it would be an uninteresting thing to calculate for sure.

In all fairness the draft would likely go through several further iterations smoothing out lots of the weird and extreme demands before having a chance of becoming a policy but that we even have to spend time discussing such nonsensical ideas is difficult to comprehend.

Especially if one thinks of how little impact this will make with the 5 to 100 nerds going to a KDE event each time.

This reminds one of the discussion about plastic in the ocean often exemplified in the media by plastic straws we use in drinks and so on. But even without knowing any numbers it should be obvious to anybody that plastic straws can not be a huge polluter to our environment in comparison to all the other packaging private persons and the industry use up on a daily basis. Still the general public and even politicians like to concentrate on straws instead of real issues.

### Hashtag ClimateStrike

Why do we talk about plastic straws and not other packaging or fishing gear? Because the first is easy to understand. We all know what it is and how it looks. We have an image of it in our heads. The straw is a symbol.

One could think it does not matter if all the details are right, symbols are more important. There needs to be something easy to grasp so people can rally behind it. By this logic also the Global Climate Strike (or any other strike) is a symbol to generate alertness and all kind of internal conflict that the loss of detail induces is justifiable by that. So all good?

Not really. KDE's primary objective is and must stay free software. This is what unites us in KDE independent of our other believes, opinions or socioeconomic and cultural background. Using KDE as a platform to grow interest into other maybe also important but unrelated topics through political symbolism will erode this base on what the community stands.

And that this will be the outcome is easy to see. Just look at the responses the KDE climate strike endorsement received on Twitter or Facebook.

On Twitter besides evoking people that call themselves Don Trumpeone and Anarcho-Taoist we have the marketing lead of KDE telling another user and self-proclaimed "KDE fan" that he should not use our software anymore because the user has the wrong opinion about climate change.

Personally I also think that the user's opinion about climate change is wrong but I would never tell him that he should not use free software anymore because of this. These reactions are divisive to the core and it was already the outcome only few hours after the original endorsement was published.

The conflicts this activism creates are the one thing. On the other side I just do not want to believe you have to use simplified symbols to gain people's interest in political topics, I do not want to believe that even today we can not make the world better without shouting at each other and hating people for their different opinions.

I think the modern tools we have nowadays could allow us to be better in this regard. But more about such tools and what role KDE could play here at the end of this article.

### Hey guys!

Before that another topic I want to strive quickly because it is getting on my nerves: the constant reminder of a handful of people at KDE events, in particular Akademy, to use inclusive language like addressing a group of women and men as "people" or "humans" instead of "guys".

I get it! Tech is not diverse, there are a lot more men than women and you want to change that for whatever reason you see fit. Personally I don't see an issue per se. I think most women just like to do different things, that sexes are different in this respect. But on the other side modern gender science also has some interesting arguments worth considering. And putting some resources into outreach programs might still be a good idea. After all especially in young years men and women are influenced by their peers and such programs could counterbalance.

But whatever your opinion is, stop trying to shove it everyone else in the face by telling them they should not use the word "guys" which is totally common in the above context. Especially don't do it when the person you think about lecturing is at the moment holding a talk about free software in front of hundreds of people. It is annoying for the people in the audience and quite frankly rude to the presenter to disrupt his talk.

My own theory is that this speech regulation is just another form of elitism to differentiate the money and cultural rich from the poor. At least it reminds me of French being the language of the nobles some hundred years ago and I have yet to meet the child of a working class family that does not find this inclusive language utter nonsense.

### Stallman

When we are talking about speech regulations I want to also quickly address the resignations of Richard Stallman since it happened recently and some people in KDE showed their support of that rather openly.

From what I read the media twisted his words on what he had to resign for in the end. On the other side it was reported by multiple credible sources that he also showed some unprofessional behavior in the past in regards to women. Then again does this already warrant his expulsion? Or that he published some questionable statements in his blog years ago? On the other side do his overall behavior and antics not hinder the spread of free and open source software overall?

So we can see that it is complicated. Also neither did I know him personally nor did I ever read his blog. When judging one way or the other it would be good if more people admitted this to themselves and would just say "I do not know". That said there are certain things to keep in mind regardless of how well one knows the circumstances when we talk about accusations of bad thoughts or behavior.

People should be given the opportunity to express their opinions freely and without fear of repercussions and they should be allowed to change their opinions again if they got convinced they were wrong. This holds also or even more true for people in power. Otherwise they might hide their real opinions and form policies with hidden agendas. Or we just get opportunists without opinions. Also not ideal.

If a person in an official position is hindering the progress of open source for certain reasons then this person should be replaced. But for these reasons and not because of something unrelated he said on an internal mailing list or on a personal blog years ago that got read probably only by a handful of people. And of course one should give this person the chance to better himself before demanding his resignation.

At last ask yourself who benefits from a call for resignation. Maybe the people's motives are pure, but own interest might be involved as well. Especially when a company asks for it. Most companies are still there first of all for their own profits. On the other side do not drift into conspiracy theories, just be wary and give the criticized person the benefit of the doubt.

## Better politics

After criticizing some of the current damaging activism in KDE I want to give some ideas what political goals our community actually could unite around besides the promotion of free and open source software. I will keep this part short but if there is interest in some of these ideas future articles could go deeper.

### Code literacy

I believe the number one skill to learn in the future besides reading and writing will be to code. And with that I don't only mean learning the formal rules of some programming language but to think in logical steps, test own hypotheses and find the right level of abstraction to understand and solve a problem.

This is not only a program for the western world. It can give rise to the living standards and social conditions of people in any culture.

KDE with contributors from all around the world and with different levels of coding knowledge is in a prime position to promote code literacy everywhere and to help governments and schools in achieving it.

### Open government

How modern technology and in particular the web has changed our understanding of how politicians should interact with the public and how the public should influence the political discourse and its decision-making is a wide and interesting field.

And it does not stop at public institutions. Also private entities, in particular companies in quasi-monopolistic positions, must open up to the public discourse in reasonable ways.

In any case free and open source software is for me the foundation on what other ideas can grow in this area. If the public does not have access to the code the government or the platform holder uses for its open government program there will be only minimal and one-sided innovation.

KDE is in a unique position of providing free software, having this software been deployed in municipal governments already and being independent of any commercial or governmental influence. How about we reach out to one of the NGOs doing work in this important field already and see what opportunities there are?

### Effective public discourse

This is somewhat related to open government but also to the overall topic on how we want to communicate with each other in the community and with the outside.

Again how and where we share thoughts and discuss topics has been changed dramatically with modern information technology. But sometimes when looking through discussions on Facebook or Twitter one could think for the worse.

I believe though there is no real change to us, just a rise in supply of opportunities to express ourselves. It covers the earlier unfulfilled demand. But this does not mean that already all possibilities have been exhausted and we can not improve any more on the current state.

I think the technology for effective ways of sharing thoughts, discussing ideas and finding consent is not yet fully developed. There are likely better ways and KDE with a legal body, an online community of individuals and many other official and private stakeholders has all the right reasons to look for and promote new technical solutions for fostering civil discourse and finding common ground.

## Progressive solutions instead of divisive activism

The quintessence is neither that the KDE community should keep out of all political topics besides free software nor that it may only be active in one of the three areas I circumscribed above. For example I would very much support work on environmental friendly technology in KDE which would then also justify some political engagement.

But there must be work on such technology first and then the political engagement grounded on that, not the other way around. I am sure if people come forward with specific solutions instead of general opinions there will be no divisiveness afterwards.

And that is the overarching theme when I think of KDE. I joined the community also because it always felt like a collective of diverse people from all around the world being interested in creating pragmatic yet proper free software solutions for everyone no matter their race, gender, social background or political opinions to improve their own daily life, their education or their income. I hope we find ways to apply this down-to-earth technical mentality also to whatever related political goals we strive for in the future.

 September 21, 2019

## Thanks

This post has been a part of work undertaken by my employer Collabora.

I would like to thank the wonderful organizers of ELC NA for hosting the event.

 September 20, 2019

## Thanks

This post has been a part of work undertaken by my employer Collabora.

I would like to thank the wonderful organizers of ELC NA for hosting the event.

 September 12, 2019

An annoying thing about C code is that there are plenty of functions that cannot be unit-tested by some external framework - specifically anything declared as static. Any larger code-base will end up with hundreds of those functions, many of which are short and reasonably self-contained but complex enough to not trust them by looks only. But since they're static I can't access them from the outside (and "outside" is defined as "not in the same file" here).

The approach I've chosen in the past is to move the more hairy ones into separate files or at least declare them normally. That works but is annoying for some cases, especially those that really only get called once. In case you're wondering whether you have at least one such function in your source tree: yes, the bit that parses your commandline arguments is almost certainly complicated and not tested.

Anyway, this week I've finally found the right combination of hacks to make testing static functions easy, and it's:

• #include the source file in your test code.
• Mock any helper functions you'd need to trick the called functions
• Instruct the linker to ignore unresolved symbols
And boom, you can write test cases to only test a single file within your source tree. And without any modifications to the source code itself.

A more detailed writeup is available in this github repo.

For the impatient, the meson snippet for a fictional source file example.c would look like this:

test('test-example',     executable('test-example',                'example.c', 'test-example.c',                dependencies: [dep_ext_library],                link_args: ['-Wl,--unresolved-symbols=ignore-all',                            '-Wl,-zmuldefs',                            '-no-pie'],                install: false),)

There is no restriction on which test suite you can use. I've started adding a few of test cases based on this approach to libinput and so far it's working well. If you have a better approach or improvements, I'm all ears.

 August 26, 2019

Sounds like déjà vu? Right, I posted a post with an almost identical title 18 months ago or so. This is about Tuhi 0.2, new and remodeled and completely different to that. Sort-of.

Tuhi is an application that supports the Wacom SmartPad devices - Bamboo Spark, Bamboo Slate, Bamboo Folio and Intuos Pro. The Bamboo range are digital notepads. They come with a real pen, you draw normally on the pad and use Bluetooth LE and Wacom's Inkspace application later to sync the files to disk. The Intuos Pro is the same but it's designed as a "normal" tablet with the paper mode available as well.

18 months ago, Benjamin Tissoires and I wrote Tuhi as a DBus session daemon. Tuhi would download the drawings from the file and make them available as JSON files over DBus to be converted to SVG or some other format by ... "clients". We wrote a simple commandline tool to debug Tuhi but no GUI, largely in the hope that maybe someone would be interested in doing that. Fast forward to now and that hasn't happened but I had some spare cycles over the last weeks so I present to you: Tuhi 0.2, now with a GTK GUI:

It's basic but also because it shouldn't do much more than just downloading the drawings and allowing you to save them. This is not an editing UI, it's effectively a file manager for the drawings on the tablet. And since by design those drawings get deleted as you download them, there isn't even much to that (don't worry, Tuhi doesn't really delete files, you can recover almost everything).

Under the hood there were some internal changes too but I suspect they'll be boring to most. The more interesting bits are reworks so we can test the conversions a lot better now and - worst case - recover files if Tuhi crashes. It is largely reverse-engineered after all.

On that note I would like to also extend my thanks to Wacom who have provided us with some of the specs for the protocol (under NDA, we cannot share these with the community, sorry). These specs helped tremendously understanding the protocol bits that were confusing at best and unknown at worst. There are still some corners in the protocol that we don't know but for the most recent generation (i.e. Intuos Pro) we should have correct parsing of the protocol.

And many thanks to Jakub Steiner for the fancy logo.

And, as of a few minutes ago, Tuhi is available as flatpak from flathub.org. For the forseeable future is is the best way to install Tuhi.

 August 21, 2019
I'll soon be flying to Greece for GUADEC but wanted to mention one of the things I worked on the past couple of weeks: the low-memory-monitor project is off the ground, though not production-ready.

low-memory-monitor, as its name implies, monitors the amount of free physical memory on the system and will shoot off signals to interested user-space applications, usually session managers, or sandboxing helpers, when that memory runs low, making it possible for applications to shrink their memory footprints before it's too late either to recover a usable system, or avoid taking a performance hit.

It's similar to Android's lowmemorykiller daemon, Facebook's oomd, Endless' psi-monitor, amongst others

Finally a GLib helper and a Flatpak portal are planned to make it easier for applications to use, with an API similar to iOS' or Android's.

Combined with work in Fedora to use zswap and remove the use of disk-backed swap, this should make most workstation uses more responsive and enjoyable.
 August 18, 2019

End of June I attended the annual Plasma sprint that was this year held in Valencia in conjunction with the Usability sprint. And in July we organised on short notice a KWin sprint in Nuremberg directly following up on the KDE Connect sprint. Let me talk you through some of the highlights and what I concentrated on at these sprints.

### Plasma sprint in Valencia

It was great to see many new faces at the Plasma sprint. Most of these new contributors were working on the Plasma and KDE Apps Ui and Ux and we definitely need some new blood in these areas. KDE's Visual Design Group, the VDG, thinned out over the last two years because some leading figures left. But now seeing new talented and motivated people joining as designers and Ux experts I am optimistic that there will be a revival of the golden time of the VDG that brought us Breeze and Plasma 5.

In regards to technical topics there is always a wide field of different challenges and technologies to combine at a Plasma sprint. From my side I wanted to discuss current topics in KWin but of course not everyone at the sprint is directly working on KWin and some topics require deeper technical knowledge about it. Still there were some fruitful discussions, of course in particular with David, who was the second KWin core contributor present besides me.

As a direct product of the sprint my work on dma-buf support in KWin and KWayland can be counted. I started work on that at the sprint mostly because it was a feature requested already for quite a long time by Plasma Mobile developers who need it on some of their devices to get them to work. But this should in general improve in our Wayland session the performance and energy consumption on many devices. Like always such larger features need time so I was not able to finish them at the sprint. But last week I landed them.

### Megasprint in Nuremberg

At the Plasma sprint we talked about the current state of KWin and what our future goals should be. I wanted to talk about this some more but the KWin core team was sadly not complete at the Plasma sprint. It was Eike's idea to organize a separate sprint just for KWin and I took the next best opportunity to do this: as part of the KDE Connect and the Onboarding sprints in the SUSE offices in Nuremberg just a few weeks later. Jokingly we called the whole endeavor because of the size of three combined sprints the Megasprint.

#### KDE Connect sprint

I was there one or two days earlier to also attend the KDE Connect sprint. This was a good idea because the KDE Connect team needs us to provide some additional functionality in our Wayland session.

The first feature they rely on is a clipboard management protocol to read out and manipulate the clipboard via connected devices. This is something we want to have in our Wayland session also in general because without it we can not provide a clipboard history in the Plasma applet. And a clipboard selection would be lost as soon as the client providing it is closed. This can be intentionally but in most cases you expect to at least have simple text fragments still available after the source client quit.

The second feature are fake inputs of keyboard and mouse via other KDE Connect linked devices. In particular fake input via keyboard is tricky. My approach would be to implement the protocols developed by Purism for virtual keyboards and input methods. Implementation of these looks straight forward at first, the tricky part comes in when we look at the current internal keyboard input code in KWayland and KWin: there is not yet support for multiple seats or for one set multiple keyboards at the same time. But this is a prerequisite for virtual keyboards if we want to do it right including the support of different layouts on different keyboards.

#### KWin sprint

After the official begin of the KWin sprint we went through a long list of topics. As this was the first KWin sprint for years or even forever there was a lot to talk about, starting with small code style issues we needed to agree on till large long-time goals on what our development efforts should concentrate in the future. Also we discussed current topics and one of the bigger ones is for sure my compositing rework.

But in the overall picture this again is only one of several areas we need to put work in. In general it can be said that KWin is a great piece of software with many great features and a good performance but its foundations have become old and in some cases rotten over time. Fixes over fixes have been put in one after the other increasing the complexity and decreasing the overall cohesion. This is normal for actively used software and nothing to criticize but I think we are now at a point in the product life cycle of KWin to either phase it out or put in the hours to rework many areas from the ground up.

I want to put in the hours but on the other side in light of possible regressions with such large changes the question arises if this should be done dissociated with normal KWin releases. There was not yet a decision taken on that.

### Upcoming conferences

While the season of sprints for this year is over now there are some important conferences I will attend and if you can manage I invite you to join these as well. No entry fee! In the second week of September the KDE Akademy is held in Milan, Italy. And in the first week of October the X.Org Developer's Conference (XDC) is held in Montreal, Canada. At XDC I have two talks lined up myself: a full length talk about KWin and a lightning talk about a work-in-progress solution by me for multi DPI scaling in XWayland. And if there is time I would like to hold a third one about my ongoing work on auto-list compositing.

In the beginning I planned only to travel to Canada for XDC but just one week later the WineConf 2019 is held close to Montreal, in Toronto, so I might prolong the stay a bit to see how or if at all I as a compositor developer could help the Wine community in achieving their goals. To my knowledge this would be the first time a KWin developer attends WineConf.